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Price, $1.00 

A collection of music that portrays various moods, 
pictures, scenes and occurrences. The music is within 
the control of the average player, and owing to the 
characteristic style of the pieces, which afford a change 






material for thi d ad fourth grade pupils. The selecting 
and editing ha seen done by Dr. Hans von Biilow and 
the work cont > ms a preface by the editor that is very 
valuable and illuminating. 



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gladly S send any of these gratis._ 








and* 3 the aSa^lments^re” “"^sour"** 

paraphrases. Mr. Lieu ranee hash‘.r, :!" S '' rlp ' ions - not 
harmonizing the various Indian tribal m 0 i^^" ec f asfnl In 
tical use by the musician DaJ me,oal e« for prac 



By E. J. Meyer Price, MCon, 

Year* of experience, not only In ilnglug and ), 

Inc but in examining flnit source*, writing books 
subject. listening to great singers and talking wliktW 
have placed K. J. Jlyer. the author of this bad. fc , 
position all bl* own. 





By F 









v .°ritable mi x of good things for the busy rt*^ ! 
.x No * * dir OT tedious number in twjTf. 
‘ J"? »' ’ hp greatest melodies ever written 
preludos. post hides and offertories. All are of 
difficulty, suited to t be average player a 
two manual nrcmnc 


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SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 557 

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IRGIL “‘i"” 

Special Courses for Teachers 


The Efficiency of The IDirgil Method 

Vol. I. FOUN1 
Vol. II. ADVA! 





Intended to follow THE BEGINNER’S BOOK or any other 
first instructor, this volume has met with a flattering reception. It 
bridges the gap between the instruction book and the graded course 




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n addressing our advertUers. 

Please mention THE ETUDE 

SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 559 

^ 'Opening the Season” Order List ( All Musical Educational Essentials ^ 

* ^ _. , . II/ U M —/ 

Examine Any of 
These Books That 
Interest at Leisure 
in Your Own Home 

So That No Important Work May be %/ ecft 

Thus Insure 


LANDON, C. W. Writ! 

:s the principles of Harr 



KILLOUGH, G. C. Gibbon’s Catechism of Music 
499 Questions and Answers. Notation, 
embelHshments* et™ 1 *' 8CalC8 ’ kCy8 ’ ch ° rd# ’ 
LANDON, C.^W. ’Writing Book for Music Pupils, 

“ Writing Book for Music Pupils^ Book l. . 

MARKS, E. F. Writing Book. 

Has pages alternating with staff n. 

MORRlIf M. si^Wrifing'Primer. 

No previous knowledge of music : 
Beginner learns the rudiments of n 

SUTOR^ADELE? 'biote Spelling Book .. 

his or her own book. 




. For the nursery and classroom. This work' 

BEGINNER'S METHOD.' Theo. Presser. 

Intended for the youngest beginners and 
perfectly adapted to their needs and insuring 
not only pleasant but^ rapidj>rogress. Phe- 

BEYERf F.^EIementary School of Piano Playing 

A concise, practical and melodious intro¬ 
duction to pianoforte study. Carefully graded. 
as-- for nin( . mor -r.. -r-C.- 

H. B. ABC 

oung child?'' 

KOHLER, LOUIS. Practical Piano Method, Op. 
249, Vole. I. II and III, each. $ 

LANDON, C.W. Foundation Materials for Piano. 

easily gm'dedl^pkasa'nt "and ’interesting 

PRESSER, THEO. School of the Pianoforte. Stu¬ 
dent’s Book. 

Intended to follow Mr. Presser’s enormously 
popular Beginners’ Book, but adapted to 
succeed any elementary instructor. The ma¬ 
terial is all bright and sparkling, melodious 

SCHMOLL, A. New Piano Method. In Two 

Books. Each. 1 

Ore Of the most popular music books of 


BASCHINSKY, P. One Year in the Life of a Child $0 7S 
12 little pieces, with text ad-lib. A charac¬ 
teristic number for each month. 

CHILDHOOD DAYS (Harthan). Instructive Duets 

for Teacher and Pupil. . . 50 


24 pieces, 150 pages, classical and popular, 
medium difficulty. 

DUET HOUR. 31 Minuets in Easy Grades. 50 






MOSZKOWSKI, M. Spanish Dances. 100 


»d Pupil..' $1 
: our Hand 


.nt, m Martf 


AIQOUNI, K. H. Practical Method for the Young 

DANCLA, CH. ’ Six Petits Airs Varies',’ Op'. 89! ’ 

FRANKLIN, F. A. Operatic Selections. 

“ Selected Cla«sics.. 

HOHMANN, C. H Practical Violin School, Ger- 

“ S.?:i„* 5 d B^kl i, eaIh ,, ' COmPle ". 2 

KAYSER, H. E. Eementary and Progressive 

Studies, Op. 20. 3 Books, each. 

LIEURANCE, THURLOW. Indian Melodies.. 
PLEYEL, I. J. Petit Duos for Two Violins, Op. g 




TOURS. B. Complete Instructor for Violin 
WATSON, MABEL M. Bel Canto Method forViolin 
evmwrittinfor'th?“oi;n ementary me ' hod 
WICHTL, G. Op. 10, The Ytnni 

“ Fifty Easy Melodic Studies, Op! 74! 2 Be 

Theo. Presser Co. <( On Sale” Plan 

guarantees satisfaction. Any of the Presser publications (works listed here or 
any of our book or sheet music publications) will be sent for examination upon 
request. You may specify special items that you would care to examine. Send 
your order now, no preliminary correspondence is necessary. Tell usyour needs 
(name a few pieces or studies of style desired) and let us send you a package of 
material to select from. You pay only for what you use and return the re¬ 
mainder. The same large discount allowed as though the music was purchased 
outright. Music not used is returned to us but once a year. Settlements a 
to be made at least once a year, preferably in June or July. 


BACH, J. S. 

“ First's'tudy of’ Bach Leel.on 

Well Tempered Clavichord, Vol. I ^ 

BERTINI, H. 25 Studie. for Pt«no<orle. Op. 29 
<• 25 Studie. for Pianoforte, Op 100 
BIEHL, A. Element, of Piano Playing. Op. JO 
B1LBRO, MATHILDE. General Study M. ~ .. - 

“ Second Grade of Melodic Studie. 

A volume to succeed ’Fir.i Grade Studie." 
by the same author. 

BURGMULLER, F. 25 Studie., Op. 100 
“ 12 Brilliant and Melodiou. Studio.. Op. 105 
“ 18 Etude, de Genre, Characteristic Elude.. 

Op. 109 

CLEMENTI. M. Cradu. ad 
CONCONE, J. Selected Studio. 

“ Oo. 24; 25; 30; 31. each 
“ Twenty-four Brilliant Prelude.. Op. 37 . 
COOKE. J. F. Mastering the Sralo. 

Enable, the teacher t<^ .tart scale study 

Many original feature. lound in no other work. 
CRAMER. J. B. Fifty Selected Studio. 

CZERNY, C. One Hundred Studio.. Op. I J* 

“ 100 Recreation.. 

“ 101 Short Exercise, in Playing. Op. 

“ School'el' Velocity, Op. 299 
” School of Velocity. Op. 299 . 4 boohs, each 
“ « Octave Studies. Op. 553 
“ ’ ’ ' ' actor. Op. 599. 

Op. 740,"6 , boo“kV''"" 

-- Practical Finger Exercises. Op. TOZ 
CZERNY-LIEBLING. Selected Studio.. 

highest degree of 
students. I’ractir 

order by at 

DORING.C. H. School of Octave PI .ring Op g 
DUVERNOY, J. B. Eeol. du Op 120 
“ Ecofe Primaire, Op. 176 ’ 

GURLITT. C. Easiest Velocity Sludies. Oo 83 
“ First Les.ons. Op. 117. 

School of Velocity. Op. 141. 

HANON, C L. Virtuose Pianist. Complete. 1 

HELLER, STEPHEN. Thirl, Selected Studies 

The best 

e, I,.., 

HELLER . STEPHEN. 25 Melodious Studies Op 4' 
30 Progressive Studies. Op. 44.. 

25 Studies, Op. 47 
HERZ, H. Scales and Exercise. 

JONAS, ALBERTO. The Pianoscript Book 

tainments. kept by 

KLEINE pischna 

KOELLING.CARL. Major and Minor ! 

third'grade^hmu'gh’aU ?he"Inajor''anTm 

keys with suitable studies and studv nirr*- 

:: ’■•■■■■■■ 

Small School of Velocity Op 242. 

KROEGER, E R. 15 Elude, for th. c„lf . 
the left hand ' h * 

.•ne In m e usicil 8 va|u aUtifu " y m * dc «■><» of gc 

KUNZ cL”' 0^4 Turn, 

The best selection 
cal studies, each 
Op.«S, Studie. forth 

udguddlh | 

SCHULZ, F. A. Scales and Chud. , 

SCHWALM. R. Daily Exercises ] „ 


Fop ,t .dents just bonnr.iog 
Each Itudy bring, out some «*wl S*®- (|| 


STF.INHEJMER. S Turn Sted** hr *.*■*"*’ 

secood'Tntf’tbird'gr^Ic'work' Euk 

intended to eacutplily and •** »' “* 
speeidl rhythmical device 

STREABBOC. L. T-rive MaWkSlrfa*-^ 

" Twelve Easy and Melodious Sledi*»-0P M 
VOGT. J. 24 Octave Studies. Op I4L 
WIECK.F. Plan. Studies. 

ov« i 

it is Desirable to Check Down Each Column, 
Complete Order 


MASON. D> WM. Teeth mi Twta. , 
The Two F-e. ' r . 

Saele. PwTTlI, Tk, Aoegglr,- 
The School el OvUta. (ftj » [ 

ol all America* .ts azdta^JJ** I 
MATHEWS. W.S B FwuUu^hfk- 

“ Studies . Phraue, ImTT 
“ Studio, iu PWsa^ hast a 

course- ol piano study, tost-itemudi^ 1 

MORRI.SON R S. It CWwtww* Jug. ) 

Freeh end uv«ia*J track so sue a - 
nclUhUoun en.umpor.-y m « n.tu» - 
accompany cn isplats siadsu ky mo its- 
a. SirtabW 

PARLOW. I Puss md Sesenl Grab Rah Ih, 

PERRY. C B Lp.i< SsU.u 
•’ Wrier Stadia. .... 

PHILLIP, L turvuns la titan, ha 
.Indies V<eegtU.ttasMiiUta 
” Proper elev, Sshed d Tschdr My p ah , 

Hand lxta. ReeA III Hssilludw [ 
Bneh IV. Aspeggses, Bead 1.DldhAm > 
Bee* VI. fsneeet snl 0ta4i lad LI 
TVs TriR. tee* VIII, tarn. Md. 


PISCHNA. Stilt Prapeeaier Umm IS 
Pt.AIDT. L Testa teal Eases tses » 

•• Selected Stadie. foul tadw 
mem of bosh haadt. AtiMtt uf «** - 

RANSOM, t. Through tta M.,o 1m 

ROGERS. J H Vsleeky Skwtsmm 

“ M.ludy and V.Utdy. 0» H 
“ Tta Meted Mats Stadm. I« U— 
0* 878 


mediai^Ckade?" 1 '^ '‘ nJ “ npreS6 '° n5 ' 

BACH, J. S. Album of Favorile Pieces . 

BEETHOVEN. Selections from Piano Works. .. 

BUCBEE-DAV1S, L. A. Merry Rhymes for Child- 
hood Times. Vocal or Instrumental 
CHAMINADE, C. Album of Favorite Compositions 

CHOPIN, F. Complete Waltzes.. 

“ Etudes for the Piano!or.e . 

“ Lighter Compositions for Piano. 

“ SekcteVwJisT”phiUip)!! 

“ Polonaises. 

For children. To be takcj 

in learning the staff notatioi 







GREENWALD, M. Children’s Song, and 
Popular traditional children's son, 

“ Melodies of the Par. 

“ Children’s Rhymes from A to Z 
GRIEG. ED. First Peer Gynt Suite, Op. 4G 
“ Album of Miscellaneous Pieces 
GURLITT. Album Leaves for the Young 

“ Album of Selected Co . 

HANDEL, G. F. Twelve Pieces for (he 
HARTMANN, A. Filty-one Old Hungarian 

ranged by 



‘ Sonatas, Vol. I!. . . . ‘ 

HEINS, CARL. Album o; Piaioforte Pieces 
HUDSON. Musical Poems lor Children 

nt little teaching pie.. 

KUHLAU, F. Sonatina? 

LICHNER, H. Sonatina.. Ops. 4. 4J, «€. 
LISZT. F. Album of Celebraled Work. 
LITTLE HOME PLAYER. Piano or Organ.!! 

MATHEWS. Standard Fi 

4 Standard Third and Fourth Grade Pieces .. 

* Standard Fifth and Sixth Grade Piece 

M .Standard Compositions, 
Vol. VII, Grade VII, ea 

ol. I, Grade I to 
out Words (Com* 



MOSZKOWSKI, M. Favorite Compositions. 

MOZART, W. A. Sonatas, 2 vols., each. 1 

“ Sonatas, Complete . J 




PIECES. 39 Popular Pieces. 




ROGERS, i. H. Toy Shop Sketches. 

ROWE, DANIEL. Tone Stories for Boys and Girls 
Large notes; .suitable for young pupils or 
kindergarten work. Lively and pleasing. 


SCHUBERT, F. Impromptus, Moments Musicals. 

SCHUMANN, R. Selected Work«. 

“ Album lor the Young, Op. 68. 

“ Scenes from Childhood, Op. 15. 

SLATER. D. EL Pictures from Fairyland 

SONATA ALBUM, Vol. I, 15 Sonatas by Haydn. 

“ Youthful Diversions (with words). 

“ Well-known Fables Set to Music (with words) 

not beyond the fourth grade. Subjects with 
which all should be familiar. 




^Quiet piano music, especially useful for the 




WAGNER-LISZT. Album of Transcriptions 1 



H. W Stxndlrd Grided Course 


guide lo irtistic 
REDDALE, F. The & 

ROOT, F. \. 

“ Singing, Through the Key.! 

Molbodkil Sight Singing. 

ht Singing, Progressive Musi 

SIEBER, F. Elementary Exercises, 35 8-Meisure 

Studies, Op. 92, Soprano. St 

“ Op. 93, Mezzo-Soprano. . 

“ Op. 94, Alto. 

VACCAI, N. Practical Italian Vocal Method. 

VIEHL, G. Graded StuJies in Sight Singing ., 

WHELPTON, G. Vocal Studies for Soprano and 
“ Student's Manual ol Sight Singing. Clear, 

'• Vocal Studio, lor Medium Vote* 

A help for the busy teacher. The needed 

Read the Explan¬ 
ation of Our "On 
Sale” Terms at the 
Bottom of this Page 

r T'HE present high cost of production has necessitated a temporary 
advance in prices. All the Book publications n r\ ,,r on price 

listed on these pages are temporarily advanced do C/ JO listed 


"MS? Philadelphia, Pa. 


CEC1LIAN CHOiR. Sacred two part Songs (or 

CHURCH AND HOME. Sacred Songs, High Voice 

“ Sacred Songs, Low Voice. 

GALLOWAY, TOD B. Seven Memory Song. 





SACRED DUETS. For all Voice.. 




Preludes, postludes and offertories for church 
and recital, all by prominent American writers. 

BACH, J. S. Eight Short Preludes and Fugues . 

-- Reed Organ 

. The Organ Player-Pipe Orga 

ORGAN REPERTOIRE. Pipe Organ Collection 
PRESSER, THEO. Velocity Studies. Furnishes 

help in an unoccupied field. 

REED ORGAN PLAYER. Collection of classic 
ROGERS, J. H. Graded Material, for Pipe Organ. 

STAINER, Dr. J. The Organ 
WHITING, GEO. E. 24 Progressive Studies lor the 
Pine Organ. To (allow the elementary stage. 
“ The Beginner's Pipe Organ Book. A standard 
technical practical instructor. 


c. Many illustration! 

BENDER.G.C. BusinessManualforMusicTeachera 
CLARKE, H. A. Harmony, A Teat-Book. 

Intended to enable the pupil to grasp easily 
and comprehensively the facts and rules of the 

COOKE, j. F. Standard Histery of Music. 1 

A first History for Students at all ages. 40 

ISO exceUent portraits and'illustrations. * 

COOKE, i. F. Great Pianists oo the Art of 

Pianoforte Playing. . 2 

Personal conferences on Technic, interpretation, expi 

sion and style with our most distinguished virtuosos. 
ELSON, L. C. Mistakes and Disputed Points in 

Music and Music Teaching. 1 

CIANS. 5 vols., 4,000 pages. 15 

HEACOX, ARTHUR E. Ear Training. 

OREM, P.«W. Harmony Book for Beginners . $1 

teaching,’e8pccfaI(y^uited for K!f-to!t?u«k>" 

PERRY. Descriptive Analyse! of Piano Works. I 
“ . Steries ol Standard Teaching Pincaa.. I 

wealth of Romance, Anecdote and Educa¬ 
tional Information without which student! 

SKINNER. 0. R. First Year in Theory. 

SCHMITT. H. Pedal, of the Piano. 
STREATFIELD. Life Stories of Great Comp 
TAPPER. First Studies in Music Biography .. 

4 . . . -‘■ildmn Dire. 



BLANK BILLS. Large size (50). 

BLANK MUSIC BOOKS. 6 staves, 32 pages 

S staves, 64 pages. 

BLANK MUSIC PAPER. 12, 14 or 16 staves, 
and Vocal, size 11x14 inches, per quire 
Octavo size, 7x11 inches. 10 or 12 staves. 

6 lines, widespacing, 7 x 8‘4, 100 sheets... 

CLARKE, H. A. Harmony Tablet. 

GUARD, F. F. Music Pupil s Lesson Book and 
Practice Record. 


MUSIC-WRITING PENS. Per dozen ... St 



TIME CARDS. Lesson and Practice Record. 
Package of 25. 


f'AELZEL, METRONOME. Without Bell De¬ 
tachable Door, American. 3 

With Bell. Detachable Door, American 4 

Without Bell, Attached Door, American.!! 3 
With Bell, Attached Door, America . 4 

Catalogs That Are Classified Guides 

of musical works, including Singer’s Hand Book, Piano Study Guide. Hand 
Book for Violin Music, Hand Book for Pipe and Reed Organ, Choir and Chorus 
Hand Book. Hand Book for 4, 6, 8 and 12 Hands, Catalog of Juvenile Musical 
Publications. Thematic Catalogs and complete Catalogs of Vocal and Instru¬ 
mental Music will be sent to you on request, without obligating you to buy. 
Our Octavo Catalog is extensive and comprehensive, continually increasing 
with many notable accessions. We publish anthems, choruses and part songs, 
all styles, and in all degrees of difficulty. We aim to assist in every way possible 
the busy organist and choral director. 


Page 560 SEPTEMBER 1918 

What Shall I Teach in the First Grade? 



A Concise Course in Grading for Teachers 

Here is a Graded List of material selected by experts, many of them famous teachers. During the c °‘™ n *L™ t i 1 j ne- 
this list will cover the Second Grade, the Third Grade and so on. But the names of pieces don t m , a f ew 
You have to see the music itself—have it in your own home for careful perusal. If you can t order more 
pieces or studies at a time you can at least make a beginning. .. 

Important Elementary 
Materials for the 
Busy Teacher 


By M.G. EVANS Price, S« ttt 



B ADfS"si/TOR ‘'"'"'"‘p^ 

.»r*«o Semin 


SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 561 

The World of Music 

Two Great Features 


of The Brunswick Method 
of Reproduction 

T HE Brunswick Method of Reproduction has opened a new era 
in phonographic art—bringing inevitable refinements Here 
tofore phonographs in themselves were wonderful enoug . 
now their novelty is past. Music lovers are more cntica . 
standards do not satisfy. 

Henceforth, we believe, these new ideals must prevail. 

First, you want a phonograph which plays all records exactly 
as they are designed to be played. 

Records are not yet standard. Different artists sing or play for dif¬ 
ferent concerns. So there is no universal reproducer, no universal needle. 

Until The Brunswick Method of Reproduction brought The 
Ultona, one had to be satisfied with a one-record instrument or else 
resort to makeshift attachments. 

The Ultona makes The Brunswick a universal player—each record 
is played precisely as the maker specifies. The Ultona presents to 
each type of record the proper diaphragm and needle. 

Yet please understand that The Ultona is not an attachment, 
but an altogether new and exclusive conception. 

At the turn of the wrist it adjusts itself. It is always ready. 
.You can play one record after another, of different make, with¬ 
out the slightest hesitancy. There is nothing to take on or off. 
Second, you want a phonograph like 

c Th<2^ 


because of its superior tone. The 
Brunswick attains the utmost in re¬ 
production. It regains all the tones 
hitherto lost, for it embodies a new 
amplifier, built entirely of wood. 

The result, as you will note instantly, 
« is more faithful reproduction, with complete 
avoidance of the metallic, rasping noises. 

Metal construction, we ascertained by 
test, cannot release and expand sound waves 
with the rare fluency of wood. 

We do not ask you to accept these 
statements as evidences of our own enthu¬ 
siasm nor that of the thousands of satisfied 
Brunswick owners. 

So the “throat” and the “mouth” of 
The-new Brunswick are of rare holly wood, 
moulded to meet acoustic requirements. We 
use no metal castings here, no tin. 

Prove to yourself that The Brunswick 
is your personal choice. A comparison is 
simple. Your ear can decide. And we gladly 
urge you to make these tests before you buy 
Brunswick Dealers everywhere join us in 
inviting you to hear The Brunswick 

Branch Hou.e. in PrincipaKjjtiei ol 


General Offices: CHICAGO and NEW YORK 

Canadian Di.tributor., Mu.ical March.ndia. 

oaie* Uo.. ExceUior I if- n..:u- _ -r- 

THE ETUDE when addressing our advertisers. 




VOL. XXXVI, No. 9 



Music in Industry 

The movement to make music a regular part of the work 
of great industrial undertakings is spreading rapidly in the 
United States. The lack of idealism in “dollarland,” which used 
to be the continual taunt of our Teutonic enemies, is constantly 
belied by facts. One of the large Western packing firms (Swift 
& Company), which has in the United States service at the pres¬ 
ent time, no less than 4,155 former employees, has a large chorus 
directed by Mr. D. A. Clippinger. A recent concert given for 
the military benefit association of Swift & Company presented 
a program of which any organization might be proud. John 
B. Stetson & Company, the well-known hat manufacturers 
of Philadelphia, have a similar organization, as has the 
Marshall Field & Company in Chicago, the Wanamaker Stores 
in Philadelphia and New York and the Strawbridge & Clothier 
Store. It would hardly be safe to hazard a guess, but the editor 
of The Etude does not believe that it would be an exaggeration 
to say that there were at least one thousand such organizations 
in America. In England the number of choruses and bands 
connected with industries is really enormous. Of course, the 
war has made a difference, but there is little doubt that after 
the war this means of bringing inspiration to workers in all 
occupations will develop enormously. It is interesting to pro¬ 
fessional musicians as it points to valuable service and additional 
income. The Theodore Presser Company is very proud of its 
own choral organization directed by Mr. Preston Ware Orem. 
The Presser Choral consists of sixty voices and has given with 
orchestra before large audiences such works as “The Elijah,” 
“The Rose Maiden,” “The Seasons,” etc. 

The Strawbridge & Clothier Chorus is conducted by the 
general manager of the business (6,000 employees), Mr. Her¬ 
bert J. Tily, who also has a degree of Doctor of Music and has 
been an organist for years. 

Music, “Just for the Fun of It” 

A business man, directing some five or six thousand em¬ 
ployees and the distribution of millions of dollars annually was 
asked why he made music his hobby. His reply was: 

“Just for the fun of it. I find that I can get far more 
joy out of music than I possibly could out of almost any other 
thing. To me it is both a physical and mental refreshment. 
It seems infinitely more interesting to me than collecting old 
and broken-down furniture, cracked plates, mutilated coins, 
antique postage stamps, ancient armor, raising chickens, or 
even dogs. Gardening appeals to me, as does nature to every¬ 
one, but one can garden only a few months out of the year, 
while one may have music every month in the year. Of course, 
one may study art at all times, but my love is for music. Music 
seems to me such a living thing that it vivifies everything it 
reaches. I don’t know of anything that could balance the 
work-a-day strain of the busy man better than music. A half 
an hour at the piano or at the organ when I go home simply 
wipes out everything that has bothered one during the day 
and gives the mind and body a fresh start as nothing else can. 
One cannot play any instrument, and play it well, while think¬ 
ing about anything else.” 

Musical Contagion 

The phenomenon of musical contagion is one of the most 
baffling puzzles in the art. With the publisher of music it is 
sometimes a matter of great concern, particularly in the case 
of the publishers of popular music. A new song or piece comes 
into the world, and in an amazingly short time people are sing¬ 
ing it or whistling it. Another piece of apparently equal merit 
is produced and, despite all manner of introductions and elab¬ 
orate advertising, it fails dismally, and the plates from which 
it has been printed may as well be melted up for old metal. Of 
course, advertising and “plugging,” as the popular publishers 
call it, will help in the ca?e of a song with merit, but on the 
other hand, millions of dollars have been literally thrown away 
in this manner upon worthless things. No clacque that ever 
polluted the Italian Opera Houses could have been more com¬ 
mercial than the custom, now happily ending, of having a 
leather-lunged youth located in the gallery of the theatre to 
help popularize the song by joining in the chorus. Orchestras 
and singers were bribed to force a song by playing or singing 
it upon all occasions, whethey the audiences approved or not. 
Naturally the audiences became more and more apathetic. The 
water was put before the horse, but he refused to drink. No 
one seems to be able to tell whether a melody is contagious or 
not. It frequently happens that some of the songs that prove 
immensely popular are ones that have been rejected by gifted 
critics. Judgment enters into the matter of selecting the manu¬ 
scripts, but no judgment can invariably determine the caprices 
of the public. The critic who could select successful songs or 
pieces with unfailing accuracy would be as valuable as the broker 
who could select stocks that would unquestionably prove im¬ 
mensely profitable. 

Apart from the commercial aspects of the puzzle there is 
something exceedingly curious. There arc, it is true, certain 
channels of popularity—or shall wc call them fads. Just now 
there is a natural demand for war songs—but a sudden turn of 
the wind could readily establish a craze for a totally different 
kind of music of the day,—as, for instance,—the tango craze 
of yesterday. In America, simplicity of melodic outline seems 
to have little to do with the infectiousness of a song. In 'our 
cosmopolitan population some of the most complicated rhythms 
have spread like the mumps, und before wc know it the checks 
of every small boy are puffed out whistling syncopations that 
would do credit to a Tzigane. 

One of our friends is a composer whose compositions have 
been hummed and whistled by more millions of people in 
more countries than those of any other living writer of music. 
Despite a great personal admiration for the man, wc have fre¬ 
quently been forced to confess, upon first hearing one of his 
compositions, that its popularity was inexplicable,—yet we find 
that in a few days the notes keep running in the head with the 
persistence of bees in the orchard. Nothing can drive them 
away. They are with us at breakfast, dinner and supper. They 
follow us to business and are our companions in all of our walks. 
They are subconscious somethings that come to our lips time 
and time again, until we get out of patience with ourselves. 
Yet we are entirely at a loss to understand the reason for this 
phenomenal vitality of rhythms and melodics. It is sheer gen¬ 
ius, which only the great can inherit. 

7 —. 7 

- -- 




- . $ 


Page 56± SEPTEMBER 1918 

The Greatest Musical Asset 

By Dr. Herbert Sanders 

If the collective students of a large music-teaching 
institution were individually asked: "What musical 
asset do you regard as the most valuable?" how various 
would be the replies! 

Some would recall the saying of Biilow, ‘Three 
things are required to become a great performer: The 
first is technique, the second is technique, and the third 
is technique.” Others, who perhaps had already ac¬ 
quired a facile technique, would undoubtedly answer 
“Expression.” Then, again, we should have An in¬ 
fallible memory,” and so on. How many of you who 
read this essay have asked yourselves the question? If 
you have not yet done so do it now—before you read 
the next paragraph. x 

A little thought will show that the most desirable 
asset for the music-student can be none of these things: 
Technique, expression, memory, repertoire are the ef¬ 
fects of a faculty which must be the cause; they are 
the fruits of a tree which must bd first planted and 
cultivated before the blossoms unfold and the fruit 
appears. And the cause of the stupendous barrenness 
of music-teaching to-day is due to the fact that we 
carefully search for fruit in places where we carelessly 
forgot to plant the tree. Plant the right tree, water it 
and give it plenty of sunshine (t. e., exercise the right 
faculty in a musical atmosphere) and the fruitage will 
exceed all expectations. This faculty has been aptly 
named the tonal vision. 

Tonal Vision 

Change the words, and join them, and you get sound- 
sight. That is, as the sound is heard it must be simul¬ 
taneously associated with its symbol (or note) on the 
printed page. .The composer does this, he first “hears 
in his mind” the music, he then records it by means 
of our musical notation. Or, inversely, the printed 
music is first seen and without mechanical aid it is 
associated with the sound of which it is merely the 
symbol; this is the order of the sight-singer. The 
composer in the act of composing mentally hears, then 
sees; the sight-singer first sees, then hears. This 
faculty has been best defined in the form of a paradox 
as “Hearing with the eyes, and seeing with the ears.” 

Many musicians regard this as a gift, and as such 
impossible to cultivate. Two decades ago it was said 
that only those with born “ears” could learn the violin; 
to-day we recognize the fact that almost anybody can 
learn the instrument; two decades ago two per cent, 
was considered the approximate number endowed by 
nature with the possession of an “ear;” to-day that per¬ 
centage would be considered to number the disqualified 
by lack of an “ear.” That the ablest of modern music 
educationalists consider the faculty capable of cultivation 
is obvious, for nearly all modern treatises on music, both 
practical and theoretical, have as their basis a grounding 
in ear-training. Those who feel deficient in this respect 
would do well to study some system of ear-training. 
This, however, is only the first step—the tone; it must 
be followed by the writing of the sounds heard—the 

How Cultivated 

The combined process can be practiced by sitting in 
the arm chair with new unheard music in hand, then, 
after realizing it as well as possible, play it, and at the 
same time note carefully the difference between the 
mental and audible effect. Practice should start with 
something simple, a hymn tune, for example, and as the 
powers of realization develop increase the complexity 
of the score. This power can be cultivated'until not 
only the notes can be realized, but even the varying 
tones of orchestral instruments, and these not only 
singly, but in combination. * This is, of course, what is 
meant by "reading an orchestral score,” an act which 
not only implies a grasp of pitch, but also a grasp of 

Technique and Mind 

Speaking generally, it may be said that to one pos¬ 
sessing tonal-vision the desirable accomplishments of 
technique, expression and memory are easily acquired. 

For instance, “What is »e chief ^mpedtaent^to^the 
cultivation of a perfect technique. Moscheles : 

contained in the oft-repeated ^b fiirf lhe 
“The mind should practice more than the “ g { 

mind is the main thing ” Or, as Bulow said F.rrt ot 
all, a pupil must be trained to think. But aU mina 
training” and “thinking” in relation to music mu 
gin with the tonal-vision. 


A noted tennis player was asked by anoviceas to 
the best way to hold the racquet, and ^he answcr he 
received was, “Just hold it naturally. The answer 
was, of course, illogical, for what was natural to the 
expert would be unlikely to be natural to the ■ 

As a matter of fact the reply was on a par with t 
advice which Chopin gave to his pupils to play as you 
feel.” It is improbable that his advice would be any 
more valuable than the advice to hold the racquet natu¬ 
rally. Why? Because in a case of this kind feeling 
is an effect and not a cause. We must go further back. 
What is the cause of feeling? The only answer, as¬ 
suming the player has natural emotion, is musical 
realization, and musical realization does not come 
primarily from hearing what is played; what is played 
' the result of the realization. The reason the effect 
„ so often inadequate is because the realization is 
incomplete. Undoubtedly the hearing of great per¬ 
formers is invaluable because they help the listener to 
realize the music and a common remark after a vir¬ 
tuoso’s appearance is, “I’ve listened to such a piece 
many times, but to-night is the first time I have really 
heard (i. e., realized) it.” The possessor of the tonal- 
vision can “realize” for himself, and therefore his 
playing (assuming he possesses temperamental qualifi¬ 
cations) will always be characterized with expression, 
and when he hears a master he will hear a realization 
of himself. 

Memory and Mind 

What is the usual method adopted to strengthen the 
memory and secure a repertoire? Speaking generally 
the pieces are played and replayed until they “go by 
themselves,” and the danger lurking in this method is 
that the fingers are trained, but not the mind. Memory 
attained in this way is merely a “finger” memory and 
not an intelligent memory. Let the motor nerves lose 
their automatic action and the piece comes to a humili¬ 
ating stop. One of the greatest of modern piano peda- 
gogs has condemned this kind of practice in the follow¬ 
ing trenchant words: 

“It must constantly be insisted upon, that if we try 
to make the piece, or study, or technical exercise ‘go 
by itself,’ this, so far from being ‘practice,’ is indeed 
the opposite—it is un-practice. For in trying to turn 
ourselves into human automata we are doing all we can 
to render it impossible for us to acquire those habits of 
mind—of attention—which enable us to play with suc¬ 
cess ; and we shall, in the end, find our head listening 
merely to the doings of our spine! And this is no mere 
figure of speech, for it describes quite accurately what 
does occur in such cases; that is, we have here the 
co’nscious, could-be intelligent brain engaged in merely 
noticing (instead of directing) the clockwork doings of 
our spinal or ganglionic centers!” 

The tonal-vision accounts for all phenomenal musical 
memories. Biilow attributed his remarkable memory 
to it. He said: “I had promised a friend to play a 
composition of his at my next concert and had not 
found time to play it over even once. I took the piece 
along on my trip, studied it in the coach, and in the 
evening played it at the concert. This method of 
studying it, first with the head and then with the 
fingers, I cordially commend to every musician.” Dur¬ 
ing his first year in America Biilow gave a hundred 
and' thirty-nine concerts without looking at a single 
page. On his second American tour he played by 
memory all Beethoven’s compositions for piano solo on 
sixteen consecutive evenings; without the possession of 
the tonal-vision these were impossible feats. 

“Sing away sorrow: cas t away care,” so wrote Cervantes in Don Quixote three centuries 
ago. The blessing of singing is again erasing worry and anxiety at a terrible moment. 
Rejoice that you are among the Music Makers. You are enlisted for your country in the 
battle against fear and anguish. Keep up the good fight. 


The Development of Rhythmic Sense 
1 in the Music Student 

By Walter J. Fried 

Von Bulow said “In the beginning there was 
rhythm.” Taking that as my “lestmotif I am sa f e in 
saving that the foundation of the development of the 
rhythmic sense in the music student is laid during the 

first lessons. „ , .. , 

One of the things I am sure we all find hardest to 
teach is time and the value of notes. I imagine we all 
resort more or less to the same devices, such as, the 
division of an apple into halves, quarters, eighths, etc; 
also a like division of the dollar. The similarity in the 
looks of the whole and half rest causes beginners much 
trouble. I try to impress the difference between the two 
by telling the pupil that the whole rest lias four arms 
(corresponding to the four beats) is therefore strong 
enough to hold on to a rail and thus hangs below the 
line- the half rest has only two arms, is not strong 
enough to hang from the rail but must sit on top of it, 
This impresses the mfnd with two tilings, the number 
of beats given to each rest and, at the same time, the 
different position the rests have in the staff. 

One thing that I have found most useful in teaching 
time and notation, is the "musical writing book,” of 
which there are several good ones on the market, put 
out by various authors. They teach the elements of 
music and some even give a little idea of harmony. 

When the pupil understands the principles of time 
and its division I let him count and dap his piece for 
me in this way; a measure, we will say. contains one- 
half n ote and two quarters, the pupil claps his hands 
once and says one, two. then claps his bands again 
saying three and again saying four. This method is 
carried out through each measure thus giving the pupil 
the general rhythmic character of the piec.e 

To train the car I. myself, play a scale and state the 
number name of each note, f. c., 1. 2, 3, etc., then I play 
easy intervals, always giving the key tone first, and ask 
which number 1 am playing. After this. I show the 
pupil the intervals written out on the staff and let him 
learn how they look, this done he can begin to play the 
easy ones himself. 

The next step is the mastery of the dotted quarter 
followed by an eighth note slurred and detached in a 
2-4 or 4-4 time. 1 generally explain, by use of a piece 
of paper (I call it an apple in order to excite the imag¬ 
ination), which I divide into eight equal parts, how it is 
possible to divide a whole note into eighths and that 
each part represents one beat of a 4-4 time doubled to 
make 8-8. Then by giving the dotted quarter three beats 
and the eighth note one heat the student soon learns 
how to heat out the rhythm. After it has become 
firmly fixed in his mind, 1 substitute the word "and” 
and make him recite it thus: One “and,” two “and,” 
etc. I have found it a very good plan, whenever a more 
complicated rhythm appears to sub-divide the bar into 
smaller denominations according to the lime-signature. 

One of the most difficult rhythms for the average 
young student to master is the quarter note followed by 
a dotted eighth plus a sixteenth (slurred) in a 44 or 
2-2 time. After explaining the value of the dot after 
the eighth note, I found that the quickest way to con¬ 
vey the idea to the student’s mind, is to play it for 
him several times. 

In regard to the 9-8 rhythm which can. and should, 
be taught to be divided into three beats 1 use the 
expression “One ha-ha, two hoo-hoo, three hee-hee. 
It affords the student a great deal of amusement and 
also appeals to his imagination. Nearly every student 
has a lively imagination and the teacher should at all 
times appeal to it by inventing all sorts of express^ 115 
and actions. Singing the melody for the student helps 
a great deal, but, of course. I always first apologize for 
my lack of training in voice culture.— V car-Book of the 
Texas Music Teachers' Association. 

Circumstance and the Artist 

\ oung artists are too apt to feel a certain unreason¬ 
able dependence upon place and circumstances. Greater 
than these is personality. The Scotch have a P r0T ,, 
Where Macgregor sits, there is the head of the table. 
When Sarah Bernhardt was touring the United States, 
her manager failed to secure a proper theatre for h' r 
in a certain Texas city in which she had promised to 
appear. With great reluctance, and expecting a con¬ 
temptuous refusal, he suggested that he might secure 
a circus tent, hut supposed that she would only act m a 
first-class theater. “Go ahead." said she, “wherever 
barah Bernhardt acts is a first-class theater!" 







Today and 

Give particular attention to the basses when you are p 
Your harmony can not be clear unless you do this. 

Anton Rubinstein. 

Never imitate anyone in your playing. Keep yourself true to 
yourself. Cultivate individuality and do not follow blindly in 
the paths of others. 

Franz Liszt. 

The art of fingering is in utilizing the fingers to bring out the 
differences in the qualities of sound. There are as many different 
qualities of sound as there are fingers. 

Frederic Chopin. 

When I sit at the piano keyboard I am standing at the same 
time in yonder comer as a listener. What does not sound good 
from the comer I correct at the keyboard. 

_ J. N. Hummel. 

Seales should never be “dry.” If you are not interested in 
them,, work with them until you become interested in them. 

Nicholas Rubinstein. 

You will not take music lessons all your life. Work therefore 
every day to make yourself as independent as possible. 

__ William Mason. 

Even the smallest task in music is absorbing, though every¬ 
thing else appear shallow and repulsive. 

Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy. 

The root of all brilliant playing lies in one thing—accuracy. 
Without accuracy any attempt at brilliancy must result in mussi- 

Teresa Carreno. 

Blind obedience to a good master is one of the indispensable 
mles for the student’s success. 

Do you wish to make music? If so, think music, and nothing 
but music all the time, down to the smallest detail, even in technic. 

New life should go into any composition at the very moment 
it passes through the soul of the master performer. 


Let proprietory systems go to the winds. All really good 
teachers use much from many, many different methods. 

_Mark Hambourg. 

Making mistakes in piano practice is in most cases an entirely 
avoidable habit, often resulting from not checking the matter at 
the very start. 

Olga Samaroff. 

Beware of all signs of nerve decay. It is time for you, Mr. 
Pianist, to investigate yourself, and strive to build up your nervous 
system. . 

Alberto Jonas. 

One hour of concentrated practice with the mind fresh and 
: body rested is better than four hours of dissipated practice 
-h the mind stale and the body tired. „ 

Emil Sauer. 


Harold Bauer. 

The tendency in modem pianoforte practice is to bring about 
the best results with the least possible effort. Twenty-five years 
ago it seemed as though the opposite were true. 

Rudolf Ganz. 

Never attempt to play anything in public that you have 
just finished studying. When you are through working with a 
piece, put it away to be musically digested, then after some time 
repeat the same process, and again the third time, when your 
piece will have become a part of yourself. 

Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler. 

Any fool can play a five finger exercise, but it takes a wise 
man to adapt what he has learned from his playing such an 
exercise to the uses of his interpretative work. 

Ernest Hutcheson. 

The student should continually examine his own work with 
the same acuteness he would be expected to show were he teaching 
another. T IT 

Josef Hofmann. 

I have never been in favor of the many automatic mechanical 
methods of producing touch. There is really only one real way 
of teaching and that is through the sense of hearing of the pupil. 

Ossip Gabrilowitsch. 

The only safe course for the average pupil is to practice regu¬ 
larly or not at all. . 

Alexander Lambert. 

A good rhythm indicates a finely balanced musician—one 
who knows how and one who has perfect self-control. All the 
book study in the world will not develop it. 

Katharine Goodson. 


Page 566 SEPTEMBER 1918 

“Why and How to Read At Sight” 

By Hazel Gertrude Kinscella 

The ability to read readily at sight is acknowledged 
to be invaluable to pianists, organists, and would-be 
accompanists, and it should encourage the large number 
of students who have not the inborn, natural ability to 
read without effort, to know that the faculty may be 
acquired and developed to a high degree by systematic 

That the need for sight-reading ability is considered 
a real necessity, especially by those whose form of art 
requires an accompanist, is proven by the following 
quotations from recent interviews with eminent artists: 
Evan Williams, the Welsh tenor, in being asked by the 
writer the qualities he most desired in an accompanist, 
answered,—“There are certain fundamentals underlying 
greatest success as an accompanist. Technic being, 
of course, taken for granted, the first and' greatest 
necessity (this, Mr. Williams heavily stressed) is to 
become a lightning sight-reader.’’ Eddy Brown, the 
brilliant young American violinist, also places sight¬ 
reading ability at the head of his list of accomplish¬ 
ments which an accompanist should possess. 

Clarence Eddy, the well-known concert organist, says: 
“Every organist should first be a first-class pianist, 
and should be able to read at sight any third- or fourth- 
grade music written for the piano. There are many 
people who think that the ability to read readily at sight 
is a natural inborn gift, but not so. One may, of course, 
have especial gifts in that direction, but the ability can 
be cultivated by anyone wishing to do so.” A conclusive 
argument as to the necessity of such development, for 
organists, lies in the fact that in the 1918 examinations 
for either Associate or Fellowship membership in the 
American Guild of Organists, twenty-five per cent, of 
the first day’s tests at the organ are in sight-reading. 

The writer has found the following methods for 
acquiring this much desired ability very successful, and 
can sincerely recommend them after several years trial. 
Results will be obtained in a much shorter time if four 
or eight pupils of relatively the same grade of advance¬ 
ment can practice sight-reading together. With the 
pupils seated, two at a piano, I place before them music 
in four- or eight-hand arrangements, of a much easier 
grade than that which they are studying. I ask them, 
first of all, before playing, to notice the key, time- 
signature, and general style of the piece,—and to 
arrange the corners of the music pages so that they 
can be quickly and deftly turned. Then all together 
count aloud one or two measures in advance of the 
first notes, then begin to play. All are warned to keep 
their place in the music, and play as many of the notes 
as possible, regardless of many which may be left out, 
for in sight-reading one must go on, and not stop the 

performance of others. And while it is 
preferable that the tempo should be at very nearly the 
required tempo of the composition in use, one s 
not, at first, go faster than the readers have the ability 

t0 1f^me tronome is occasionally used, the‘first reading 
may be at a rather slow tempo, allowing time for ’Obser¬ 
vance of .phrase and expression marks, etc. . 
metronome may be ‘set faster twice, the las in V 
the indicated tempo on the composition. This compo¬ 
sition has now become familiar, and should be laid 
aside, for the work of a sight-reading class is not 
a finished ensemble. —~ 

A sense of rhythm plays a large part in the ability to 
read at sight, and its development should be given extra 
attention. Reading of folk-music, and such works as 
the Brahms Hungarian Dances, Slavic Dances by both 
Wolff and Dvorak, Marche Slave by Tschaikowsky, and 
L’Arlesienne by Bizet, are very profitable, rhythmically. 
Pupils may go through them, first, all playing rl ® 
hand parts, only, counting .aloud; then playing the left 
hand parts; then, sometimes, having the players play 
only certain counts in each measure (this is a wonderful 
test of ability to see value of notes and rests at a 
glance). When a particularly difficult rhythmical prob¬ 
lem presents itself, it is sometimes profitable to stop 
for a moment and “tap” or clap out the rhythm, or to 
play the rhythm (not the melody) of the measure or 
measures on one key of the piano—C, for instance. 

Pupils should come, in time, to be able to recognize 
certain major and minor scales or arpeggios at a glance, 
in runs or complicated passages, and not be obliged to 
read out every separate note. Certain chords and chord 
progressions should come to be recognized, automa¬ 
tically, as a whole, and not necessitate “spelling out.’ 
Only in this way can one attain great speed in reading. 
Later in the course, I request each student to bring a 
solo of moderate difficulty to each meeting of the class, 
and after the hour’s ensemble reading, these pieces are 
read by the other students in the class, after I have indi¬ 
cated the required tempo with the metronome. Accom¬ 
paniment of voice or instruments easily follows. 

The value of the work in classes cannot be over¬ 
estimated, as it simulates confidence and alertness, the 
ability to play with and before others, and promotes 
more finished and artistic ensemble playing. With a 
good choice of music used,—ranging from adaptations 
of standard symphonies, overtures, and suites, to ar¬ 
rangements of solo works by classic and modern 
writers,—it may result in greatly increased appreciation 
of the best literature of music,—some of which, the 
orchestral, being seldom heard outside of the larger 

Two Lessons a Week versus One 

By Elmore Hoppox 

Two Lessons. 

Constant oversight and chance to correct 
wrong habits before they- are formed. 

Inspiration pupil gathers from teacher’s guid¬ 
ance and care. 

Stimulus pupil acquires from the necessity of 
preparing two lessons. 

Aim to reach a certain piece more quickly acts 
as an inducement to cover the required distance. 

Child’s mind fresh, receptive, eager to explore; 
hands flexible and easily adapted to right or 
wrong positions—all favorable to get right start 
upon which to erect a firm superstructure. 

Given in class, results are manifold: two im¬ 
portant ones—incentive an alert pupil gives to the 
sluggard; excellent opportunity to give ear-train¬ 
ing (so much neglected) in a most attractive 

One Lesson. 

Too great lapse of time between lessons for 
young people. 

Brings about an indifferent spirit. 

Time appears interminable to short-sighted stu¬ 
dent : the preparation of the lesson is delayed, 
which brings a consequent hurry at the end. 

A hurriedly prepared lesson is poor and neces¬ 
sitates re-assignment, which discourages and fre¬ 
quently antagonizes a pupil. 

Never failing retrogression when a student 
changes from tyo lessons to one at the dictate 
of the parent’s impracticability. 

In case of class lessons, one lesson a week gives 
too scant opportunity for personal attention. 

Economy of 
progress is mo 


ime and money in the end, since I Loss of pupil’s interest through a lesson poorly 
e real and satisfactory. prepared at the last minute and re-assigned means 

| time and money lost. 


When the Professor Got Back from His 

The Professor went off to the woods for the glorious 
mo „th of August. Here, at least, he could be free 
from care while he was tantalizmg the little speckled 
beauties to jump from the stream and snatch the 

'^Meanwhile the colored lady, old Aunt Mollie, who 
does the Professor s washing, was given an opportunity 
to clean up the Professor s studio. When the Profes¬ 
sor K ot back from his vacation he found this little 

billet doux from Aunt Mollie, which we have edited 

and respelled for our readers: 

“Dear Sir:— The lady dressed in a sheet fell off the 
mantelpiece and got all broke. Vou know, the white 
ladv without any arms. 

“Your piano was awful dirty—it took two pails of 
suds to wash it out. 

“A lady called and said that she had four daughters 
who wanted to study with you. She wrote her name 
on a piece of paper, but I put it in the fire by mistake. 
Mighty nice lady, with a big blue automobile. 

“All the old paper with little blots all over it got 
cleaned out good and thorough. 

“The furniture polish in your closet called Black and 
White is no good, but it smells fine. 

"I took down all your books out of the bookcase, 
and when I tried to put them back there was two 
scuttlefuls left over. You’ll find the scuttles behind 
the piano.” 

Thoroughness in Little Things 

Mae-Aileen Erb 

Armed with diplomas from leading conservatories, 
bubbling over with enthusiasm and eager to put their 
recently acquired knowledge to the test, an army of new 
teachers enter the musical profession in the fall of 
every year. Before they can become full-fledged teach¬ 
ers in the true sense of the word, however, they have 
much to be learned which cannot lie gleaned from 
school or text book, but from experience alone 

These young teacher aspirants should remember the 
motto: "He that neglects the little things shall fail 
little by little.” Thoroughness is the keynote oi suc¬ 
cess in everything, and it is one of the qualities which 
is inseparable from a good teacher. Many a talented 
pupil has been consigned to mediocrity through care¬ 
less and faulty instruction. 

Let us dweil for a moment on some of the “little 
things” which, in time, can become serious barriers to 
one's success. In the first place (you may consider 
this very, very trivial, but ’tis important none the 
less) care should be taken to form a correct hand 
position and an erect sitting position at the keyboard. 
All habits, such as nodding the head, tapping the foot, 
swaying the body back and forth in time to the music, 
or bending over the piano unduly should be discour¬ 
aged in the pupil before they become mannerisms. 

Constant drill in note reading, leger lines as well 
as on the staff, should never be discontinued until an 
absolute knowledge of them is gained. Finger¬ 
ing should be adhered to strictly; no haphazard finger¬ 
ing on the part of the pupil should be permitted. 
Every error made should be corrected before the les¬ 
son period is over, and not allowed to slide by until 
the “next” time. It is all too easy for a teacher to 
become careless in this respect. 

The pupil must be taught to help himself; he will 
not always have a teacher upon whom to depend. B 
a wrong note is played let him find the correct one 
himself. Should the time be troublesome, give th e 
pupil a pencil, and let him divide the measure into its 
proper counts. It will make far more impression on 
his mind than if someone were to write it out for 
him. Counting aloud must also he insisted upon from 
the earliest lessons. The teacher should not deem it 
necessary to count for the pupil or even with him. 
If the young player understands the time perfectly 
he should be taught to rely on himself and do the 
counting alone. This will save the teacher much en* 
ergy as counting for students from morning until 
evening cannot but prove tiring and is of small benefit 
to the child. 

Another important suggestion to be remembered is 
this: Never, never advance the student too rapidly. 
Each step undertaken should be thoroughly understood 
before going to the next. Let your foundation work 
with your pupils be scrupulously painstaking and thor¬ 


SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 567 


Practical Psychology for 

Piano Teachers 


There are many teachers who are fine pianists and— 
as far as education goes—well equipped for their pro¬ 
fession,yet fail to attain success with their pupils. The 
ability of a teacher is measured more accurately by his 
average success with all pupils rather than by what he 
does with a few talented ones. It is easy enough to 
teach gifted students; as the late Emil Liebling once 
said, “they play in spite of our teaching!” Unfortu¬ 
nately the average class is not made up of geniuses; 
the teacher must take all kinds of material and—to the 
best of his ability—make something out of it. 

Now, may be true that great teachers—like 
poets—are born, not made, yet a study of Psychology 
may help any teacher to become a better one. In ex¬ 
amining the psychology of teaching I shall only set 
down in a fragmentary way a few principles which 
may be helpful to the inexperienced teacher. The fail¬ 
ure of many teachers may often be attributed to neglect 
of one or more of these principles. 

The First Impression 

1. Making the First Impression. This I would rank 
first in importance. While it is a truism that “appear¬ 
ances are deceitful,” yet—deny it as we may—the 
wisest of us are swayed by them. While our first im¬ 
pression of a person may be wrong and subject to 
reversal later, yet it exerts a more powerful influence 
on us than we are sometimes willing to admit. A 
child’s first impressions are often ineradicable; they 
may be corrected to a certain extent when he reaches 
the age of reason, but they will still persist in the sub- 
consciousness. To the present day I retain a feeling 
of animosity toward one of the teachers of my child¬ 
hood, in spite of the fact that it is foolish and perhaps 
unjust. The impression which the teacher makes upon 
his pupil at the first lesson may exert a powerful influ¬ 
ence upon the latter during his whole course of study. 

The teacher who is well dressed, refined in manner, 
quiet and dignified in bearing, and courteous in his 
treatment of pupils, may secure a greater hold upon 
them than the teacher who is badly dressed, unrefined, 
brusque, impatient and conceited. Success in teach¬ 
ing depends first of all upon getting the respect and 
confidence of the pupil. 

Therefore, when the pupil comes for his first lesson, greet 
him cordially, try to make him feel that you are Interested 
in him; do all you can to remove any cause for self-con¬ 
sciousness on his part. Avoid suggesting any unpleasant 
thoughts of drudgery, try to make him feel that he is enter¬ 
ing upon a study which you will endeavor to make a pleasure 
to him. Above all things do not criticize his previous 
teacher, if you are a better one your pupil will find it out 
as he goes along; here The Golden Rule applies. 

Two Kinds of Attention 

2. Secure Attention. Attention is either voluntary, 
or spontaneous. It is voluntary when it is kept upon 
some object by an act of the will. It requires effort- 
and cannot be long sustained without lapsing into spon¬ 
taneous attention. Either the mind wanders and must 
by an effort be brought back; or we get interested in 
the task that was begun voluntarily and then attention 
to it becomes spontaneous. 

Hence, it will be seen that the vital factor in securing 
attention is interest. The teacher who expects to be suc¬ 
cessful must interest his pupil at any cost. Now just 
at this point most of the failures are made. A surpris¬ 
ingly large percentage of those who study music are 
not interested. This is shown by the difficulty which 
many teachers experience in get¬ 
ting pupils to practice. It will not 
do to attribute this failure to prac¬ 
tice to the movies, the automobile, 
pressure of school studies, or what 
not. If pupils were deeply inter¬ 
ested in their music and really 
wanted to practice, they would 
find time to do so. Was there ever 
a normal boy who could not 

find time to play base ball? To be sure he may 
neglect his studies and even “play hookey,” but he finds 
time for ball playing because he is intensely interested 
in the game. • Once get your pupil vitally interested 
and the rest is comparatively easy. 

Now, how shall we do this? Perhaps this is the most 
difficult problem that the teacher has to solve. It 
seems to me that this difficulty arises in large part from 
the fact that we try to interest the pupil in technic, 
which, however necessary it may be, makes no appeal to 
him, while the very thing that does interest him— music 
—is too often given secondary consideration. It is un¬ 
doubtedly true that there are pupils who cannot by any 
possibility be interested even in music, but they are in 
the minority. 

I have found that the quickest way to interest a pupil 
is to give him music and develop technic from the 
compositions studied. As there is nothing so nearly 
like a thing as the thing itself, so there is no etude or 
technical form that will overcome the difficulties of a 
passage so quickly as practice on the passage itself. 
It must be understood, however, that countless, thought¬ 
less repetitious of the notes merely will be of little 
use. The teacher must understand the principles of 
technic and show the pupil how to apply them to the 
passage in hand. 

Something more is necessary, however; he must he 
given a piece that appeals to him, not music that the 
teacher forces upon him. This statement is not to be 
misunderstood. It does not mean that the pupil should 
be given ragtime or any trash that he may fancy. It 
does mean giving him music that he can understand and 
enjoy; music that appeals to him by its melodic, or 
harmonic beauty, strong rhythm, or what not. 

When we try to develop in a child a love for the best 
literature, we do not begin with Dante, Browning, Car¬ 
lyle, Milton or Shakespeare. We take Andersen, 
Kingsley, Carroll, Field, Stevenson and other writers 
whose stories and poems appeal to the child. From 
these we lead up to the great authors as the child’s mind 
matures. In music study how often we give the pupil 
compositions that he cannot by any possibility under¬ 
stand, as soon as possible dragging in Bach, Beethoven, 
and other classics, in the mistaken idea that we are 
educating the pupil’s taste and developing a love for 
the best music. Parsing Shakespeare in the schools 
has done much to kill a love for his exquisite poetry; 
we may easily make the same mistake in music. In the 
education of taste the principle of working from the 
simple to the complex holds good. There is plenty of 
music that is melodious, well harmonized and simple in 
form, even if it be not written by the great masters. 
A few pieces of various grades follow; besides these, 
many others will be found in the catalogue of your 

French Child’s Song, In May, Barcarolle, Spanish 
Dance, Behr; Vesper Bells, Krogmann; Flower Waltz, 
Hurdy Gurdy Man, Rogers; Evening Chimes The Bold 
Grenadier, Hackh; Around the Fireside, Rolfe; Invi¬ 
tation to the Dance, Weber-Heins; In Clover, Amoroso, 
Whispers of Waves, Drifting and Dreaming, Kern; 
Forever, Nocture, Aletter; Good Humor, Holiday Eve, 
Baumfelder; Con Amore, Slumber Sweetly, Beaumont; 
March, Op. is. No. 8 Barth; Sketch No. i, Bird; Valse, 
Op. is, Dennee; On the Holy Mount, Dvorak; Spinning 
Song, Ellmenreich; Blendine, Tendre Fleur, Egghard; 
Valse Serieuse, Polketta, Fradal; Melody of Love, Bar¬ 
carolle, Tales of Hoffman, Engelman; Spring Showers, 
Fink; Twilight, Guy; Twilight, Orange Blossoms, But¬ 
terfly Waltz, Chant Poetiquc, Friml; Waltz, Op. IOI, 
Festive Dance, Hunting Song, Gurlitt; Patriotic Song, 
Grieg; Thou Art Like a Flower, Hoffman; lolly Black¬ 
smith, Harris; In an Alabama Cabin, Cadman. 

Having decided to use music of this class, how shall 
we be certain to give the pupil a piece that will interest 
him? By playing a number of compositions for him 
and allowing him to select the one that makes the 

strongest appeal to his sense of melody, harmony, or 
rhythm. This must not be done in a haphazard way. 
Suppose the teacher wishes to make a study of legato 
melody playing. There may be a number of pieces of 
about the same degree of difficulty, any one of which 
would answer the purpose. These may be played for 
the pupil and the one that appeals to him the most 
strongly selected for study. This course may be pur¬ 
sued every time a new piece is given. The following 
out of this method of selection necessitates careful 
grading of pieces, a thorough study of the pupil’s needs, 
and much hard thinking on the part of the teacher, but 
success in teaching is largely dependent upon the appli¬ 
cation of brains to the business. 

The Point of Contact 

3. Maintain Interest. Having secured the interest 
of the pupil, the next and most difficult thing is to main¬ 
tain it: To do this will require all the ingenuity and 
skill of the teacher. In order to be successful he must— 
in the language of Psychology—“find the point of con¬ 
tact.” Expressed more simply, this means that you 
should find something that the pupil is interested in, 
and from this work up to the lesson that you wish 
to teach. For example; you want to take up the sub¬ 
ject of relaxation of the muscles. Your pupil is a 
normal boy and therefore an enthusiast on baseball. 
Ask him to tell you whether in batting a ball the mus¬ 
cles should be loose or stiff; give him a cane or stick 
and ask him to show you how he “puts one over the 
fence.” You have at once established a point of con¬ 
tact, starting from which you can show him how loose 
muscles are necessary in riding a bicycle, skating, danc¬ 
ing, etc., and that they are equally essential in piano 
playing. The subject off relaxation will have an interest 
for him now that it would not have had if brbught up 
as a principle ofvpiano study alone. 

Perhaps the pupil is a girl who is knitting a sweater 
for the soldiers; she has her knitting bag with her as 
she enters the studio. You want to explain the reason 
for slow,* careful practice. Ask her to show you how 
she learned to take a stitch for the first time; call her 
attention to the fact that this was done very slowly and 
with great care; that a wrong stitch had to be unrav¬ 
elled ; that only after many slow movements had estab¬ 
lished automatic action could she knit rapidly. When 
you lead from knitting to the application of the same 
principle to piano practice, the reason for slow prac¬ 
tice will be at once apparent. 

The writer has found the report a valuable aid in 
maintaining interest. A small blank book is given to 
the pupil, in which, the teacher marks a Yeport at each 
lesson. The marks are similar to those in use at the 
public schools and are given for notes, fingering, and 
time. A, perfect; B, good; C, poor; D, failure. If 
the pupil comes with a prepared lesson in which the 
notes are all learned correctly, he is given A; for per¬ 
fect fingering, A; for perfect time, A. His report 
would be entered in the book thus: 

October 1, A. A. A. 

At the next lesson he might have the notes right, 
fingering wrong, and time right, when his marks would 
be A. C. A. The teacher can vary these marks to in¬ 
clude expression, pedalling or any other details in 
playing. It is surprising to see how the average pupil 
becomes interested in maintaining an unbroken series 
of A’s, particularly as he is asked to show the report 
to his parents after each lesson. 

A monthly letter from the teacher 
to the parents supplements these 
reports, states the pupil’s deficien¬ 
cies, gives details as to his progress, 
and makes any necessary sugges¬ 
tions to the parents. Pupils take as 
much interest in this letter as they 
do in their report, particularly if 
their work has been praised. Chil- 

Page 568 SEPTEMBER 1918 

dren—grown-ups also — thrive on praise. When it is 
deserved and judiciously given it helps to maintain 
interest; carping criticism and fault-finding just as 
surely discourage the pupil. 

Pupils’ recitals, talks on music and recitals by the 
teacher are potent factors in maintaining interest of 
both pupils and parents. 

Know your subject thoroughly; 

ent and grasp Its opportunities. 

Think First—Play Afterward 

4. Psychology of Practice. Having interested the 
pupil in his study, the psychology of practice requires 
consideration. Practice has for its object the establish¬ 
ing of sub-conscious (or automatic) playing, hence, in 
the last analaysis, its purpose is habit-building. Suc¬ 
cessful practice must therefore follow the laws of habit 
formation. The essential factors in forming a habit are 
a strong initiative, perfect accuracy and manifold repeti¬ 
tion. The most potent factor in securing a strong 
initiative is intensity of interest—a fact that is too often 
overlooked. After initiative follows accuracy. The 
player must put the right finger on the right note, at 
the right time, with the right touch, the first time that 
he plays a passage, and continue to do so each successive 
time thereafter, without the slightest variation from the 
correct order of the initial performance. Practice that 
includes mistakes is worthless, as, in so far as it 
establishes a habit, it is a habit of falsity. Failure 
to secure accuracy is due entirely to lack of concen¬ 
trated thought. A good way to secure perfect accuracy 
is to name aloud the note, then the finger that is to 
play it. Having done this, rest the finger upon the 
key to be played. Next, determine the amount of 
power to be employed and the touch to be used. After 
these successive steps have been thought out in advance, 
and not till then, play the note. Proceed thus with 
each note till a phrase has been played, then repeat the 
phrase as many times as is necessary to bring it to the 
automatic stage. If every phrase of every piece learned 
be practiced in this way, there will be little danger of 
mistakes. This process seems easy enough, but is pre¬ 
cisely the most difficult thing for the average pupil to 
do. He plays first, and thinks afterward—if he thinks 
at all. Think first, play afterward, is the invariable rule 
for successful practice. 

Endeavor to awaken the sell 
tell him anything that you can 
himself. Teach him how to pra 
at every lesson till the habit < 

pity of 


e pupil, n 
think out 

icticlng with him 
accurate study is 

Very Rapid Playing 

5. Psychology of Speed. Having learned a piece so 
that it can be played through at a slow tempo without 
mistakes, it should then be brought up to the required 
speed. An understanding of the psychology of fast 
playing will aid the player at this point. Speed, from 
the physical side, is dependent upon a condition of abso¬ 
lute looseness of the unemployed muscles, and upon the 
elimination of waste movements. With these as a basis, 
fast playing is largely a mental proposition, an analysis 
of which may be helpful in making the matter clear. 

Any act that is performed easily and perfectly, is done 
sub-consciously, or automatically and without conscious 

In learning a new movement or series of movements, 
we are obliged to think them through a step at a time, 
slowly and laboriously. After a sufficient number of 
repetitions, the movements can be handed over to our 
sub-consciousness, which then carries them on auto¬ 
matically and relieves us of any further mental partici¬ 
pation in the matter. Just so long as we are obliged to 
think our way through any process, we are forced to 
go slowly. A simple example of this is found when we 
repeat the alphabet. Most of us can rattle through it as 
rapidly as we can pronounce the letters, we have done 
it so often that the process has become a purely auto¬ 
matic one in which the mind takes no conscious part. 
Now start at Z and try to go backward; at once there is 
trouble, we are forced to go slowly in order to avoid 
stumbling and confusion. We are travelling a new and 
unfamiliar path and are therefore obliged to think each 
step of the way. In going through from A to Z, we 
did not think at all, the entire process through long 
practice having become automatic. After a sufficient 
number of repetitions it is as easy to go backward as 
forward. Notice the fact also that in running through 
the alphabet rapidlv, we repeat the letters in groups, 

In reading a book we group the letters into words 
and the words into sentences; a word or sentence is the 

unit to our thought and we are not conscious of the 
letters that enter into it. If we spell a sentence letter 
by letter we shall not be able to read any faster than 
we can think each letter. Group the letters into words 
and there is an immediate gain in speed. Speed in 
passage playing is. only possible when we lose sight of 
individual tones and think a series of notes in a lump-— 
so to speak. Making use of this psychological principle 
we may bring a passage up to a high rate of speed in 
a short time. As an example take this bravura passage 
from the Sibelius Romance in E flat. 

Play the first group of five notes a few times slowly 
and carefully; then double the speed and play a number 
of times. At both these rates of speed there is time 
for deliberate thought. Next practice as_ a velocity 
exercise by fixing the mind on the last tone of the series 
and dashing through the group without any thought as 
to the notes that compose it. Play the last octave with 
a crisp-staccato produced by pulling the fingers into the 
palm of the hand and allowing the arm to rise six 
inches or more above the keys. If not successful after 
a few attempts, return to the slow practice and after a 
few repetitions again dash through in velocity. In a 
short time the knack of fast playing will be acquired. 
Practice the next group of five in the same way. 

and play at the three rates of speed. Continue in the 
same way, adding each group of five to those already 
learned, till the entire passage can be played through 
at a high rate of speed without conscious thought. This 
practice should be repeated day after day, till the 
cadenza is brought easily under control. 

Rapid passages of any kind in pieces should be prac¬ 
ticed by dividing them into groups and building them 
up a group at a time, as in the example just given. This 
kind of practice.will be found conducive to memorizing, 
as a passage played at a high rate of speed must 
perforce be done largely from memory. 

Keeping Up Old Pieces 

6. Psychology of Review. There is a story of a man 
who called a certain piece his “Thousand Dollar Polka,” 
because after he had spent that amount on his daugh¬ 
ter’s music study, the polka was the only thing that she 
could play. This story may be fictitious, but the condi¬ 
tion described is one too prevalent among piano stu¬ 
dents. While they may study a great many pieces, very 
frequently they can only play one or two of them, and 
even these may he lacking in ease and finish. This 
condition of affairs may be due to the fact that the 
pieces studied have either been too difficult, or—as is 
often the case—have never been really learned. A piece 
is not really learned till it has been thoroughly memorized 
and subjected to persistent review. This review, when 
systematically conducted, may extend over a period of 

The psychology of the review, because it is not always 
understood by pupils, needs a word of explanation. 
When studying a new piece, th& player, after a certain 
amount of diligent practice, often reaches a point 
beyond which further progress seems impossible. Dis 
couraged by failure to get the wished-for result, the 
pupil then gives it up. Now instead, the piece should 
be dropped for a few weeks, then taken up again and 
given a period of concentrated practice, after which it 
may again be dropped. With each subsequent review 
the piece will be advanced beyond the former sticking 


point, and, in the course of time will become part of ^ 
player’s self. 

The psychology of this is, that during the interval, 
of rest, the piece is being turned over in the sub-c 011 . 
scious mind, and, as it were, ripened. The first time it 
is played after one of these intervals of rest, it no . 
infrequently happens that the piece will go better thal 
it did when last in practice. A systematic review should 
form part of the scheme of study, and may be con. 
ducted as follows: Keep a list of the pieces studied 
adding to it each new piece learned. Start with the first 
piece on the list, give it a thorough practice for a week 
or two, then drop it. Take up number two in the sanie 
way, follow this by each piece in turn. When the end 
of the list is reached, return to the beginning and repeat 
the process ad infinitum. The player who has never 
thus reviewed his repertoire, would perhaps do better 
to take but a few pieces through this review, adding one 
more piece every time he reaches the end of the list 
After this systematic review has been in operation for 
a few years, the player will have a constantly increasing 
repertoire which can be played at a moment's notice. 

Preventing Nervousness 

7. Playing in Public. The review will throw light 
upon the psychology of playing for an audience. The 
ogre of professionals and amateurs alike is nervousness. 
If the testimony of the world's greatest artists be true, 
nothing will prevent nervousness ; it can, however, be 
controlled. One of the factors in securing this control 
is the positive conviction that you know your piece. 
Another is the knowledge that the performance of a 
thoroughly learned piece is largely automatic, or sub¬ 
conscious —as we often say—“it plays itself.” Both of 
these factors result from the review carried over a 
period of years, and no piece that has not been thus 
thoroughly seasoned should ever be attempted in public. 
Two of the greatest pianists now before the public told 
me that they never put a piece on a program till it has 
been in practice for at least two years. When a piece 
has been so long in practice that it reaches the automatic 
stage, the nervous player who does not try to interfere 
with his sub-conscious action, will find that it will often 
carry him through till his nervousness is under control. 
Concentration of the mind upon the piece that is being 
played, and the maintenance of a condition of muscular 
relaxation during the performance, are almost specific 
in controlling nervousness. Auto-suggestion is also 
very helpful. After retiring at night, and just before 
dropping off to sleep, relax all the muscles and repeat 
some such formula as this: "I know my piece, I can 
play it, therefore 1 shall have no fear.” Assert this 
positively for a few nights and you may be surprised at 
the result 

Before playing ti, public, KNOW that yon know tour piece. 
W hen before an audience sit quietly for a few moments and 
relax the muscles completely. Forget yourself and con 
cent rate your mlud upon the piece you are to play: endearor 
to play it as beautifully as possible, try to make your bearers 
reel its beauty. If you are successful lu this, your nervous- 

The few principles set down above do not by any 
means cover all the psychology of teaching, but it is 
hoped that the application of them will be as helpful 
to the inexperienced teacher as it has been to the writer. 

A Scale Honor Roll 

By Abbie Llewellyn Snoddy 

All my efforts to really interest my younger pu¬ 
pils in their scale practice proved vain until 1 tried 
my Scale Honor Roll. Upon a large square of 
white cardboard I wrote each pupil’s name plainly. 
At a class meeting I explained to the children that 
each major scale played perfectly according to the 
required manner would, in future, be rewarded with 
a gold star opposite the performer's name. For minor 
scales blue stars would be used; for clTbrds, green 
stars, and for each piece of music memorized, a silver 
star. Red stars were to mark a perfect review of 
the scale circle, and would count for five gold stars. I 
promised prizes at the end of the year, a separate prize to 
each pupil who earned the highest number of either 
gold, green or silver stars. 

I have been kept busy ever since purchasing stars, 
but I have the gratification of knowing that my first 
and second-year pupils have more than a speaking 
acquaintance with the scales and their chords. 


SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 569 

Is the Sonata Form Exhausted? 

The Distinguished New York Critic 

John Stuart Mill confessed in one of his pithy 
essays that at one time he had become alarmed lest the 
possible combinations of the musical scale should be 
exhausted and the tone art pass out of existence. Con¬ 
tinued reflection on the subject caused him to believe 
that his fear had been like that of the scientists of 
Lilliput who were afraid that the sun would burn out. 
But it is not quite the same kind of anxiety that leads 
one to inquire whether the sonata form is exhausted. 

Some intelligent writers on music hold that the form 
has outlived its usefulness, that it has no value as a 
medium for expressing the tumultuous emotions under¬ 
lying so much of ©ur modern delineative music. But 
it is by no means simple to back such an assertion by 
demonstration. The facts appear to be in opposition to 
it. At any rate many composers, some of them men of 
high distinction, frequently write in the sonata form, 
or in forms directly derived from it, even when com¬ 
posing what we call program music. 

The employment of the sonata form for program 
music is almost as old as the form itself, for every 
student of musical history has heard of Kuhnau’s Bible 
Sonatas and some have even played or heard played the 
old master’s piano description of the conflict between 
David and Goliath. But such music cannot fairly be 
called into court to bear witness on either side of the 
present question. It was conventionalized composition 
in spite of its programmatic titles. 

Those who question the further availability of the 
sonata form are referring to the piano sonatas, quartets 
and symphonies of such masters as Beethoven. What 
these writers wjsh to know is whether it is worth while 
to cling to the*old "first movement form” and to the 
traditional sequence of movements; whether, indeed, 
the entire apparatus of the sonata method of announc¬ 
ing and developing themes is not now a restraint upon 
free and spontaneous utterance. 

As Sir William Gilbert made one of his whimsical 
characters remark, "Bless you, it all depends”. Schu¬ 
mann in one of his wise apothegms said "Mastery of form 
leads talent to ever increasing freedom” and Weinlig 
laid down the same law when after half a year's instruc¬ 
tion of Wagner in counterpoint he said to him, “What 
you have been acquiring is freedom". Martin Luther 
shrewdly observed that while other composers (strug¬ 
gling with the new canonic laws) had to do as the notes 
would let them, Josquin des Pres made the notes do as 
he pleased. With such suggestions before us we might 
content ourselves with Answering our question by de¬ 
claring that a master of form can write in any form and 
say what he wishes. 

But even this is not a complete or direct answer to 
the inquiry. The inescapable reply, perhaps, is best 
found in the works of those composers who are by 
artistic bent and technical methods furthest removed 
from the composers of absolute sonatas. In the latter 
class we must without hesitation place Haydn, Mozart, 
Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann (in his specifically de¬ 
nominated symphonies and sonatas) and Brahms. 
While both Beethoven and Schumann made innovations 
which led directly toward the symphonic poem, the tone 
poem and other modern forms, such as the Overture 
Fantasia or what not, they still adhered to the general 
pattern and the developing method of the sonata. 

Richard Strauss, one the other hand, is assuredly not 
a composer of sonatas. Nevertheless he has preserved 
in his most advanced compositions the fundamental 
methods and principles upon which the sonata form 
rests. Only in the music belonging to the ethereal realm 
of tone color impressions can we be sure that we are 
wholly dissociated from the old laws of musical archi-' 
teeture. Mr. Strauss is the author of a prodigious piece 
of autobiography entitled A Hero's Life. One is invited 
to observe the imposing superman in the various acts 
of his stupendous career from love to war and victory. 
The composition conceals its form under a mass of 
vivacious details, but it is none the less a symphonic 
work. It is as strict in form as any creation of Brahms, 

who is probably as far from Strauss as Alpha from 
Omega. The utilization of certain germinal themes, 
from which the whole work develops, was certainly not 
a new device when Strauss employed it, for the same 
process, can be studied in the D minor Symphony of 

The novelty of the Strauss work is one that belonged 
rather to. a period than to any one man, namely the 
employment of the representative theme or leading 
motive in an instrumental composition. The transfer 
of the Wagnqrian system to absolute music opened up a 
field for infinite and also indefinite speculation. Now 
we must bend our minds not only to the discovery of 
first and second principal themes and their contrast of 
keys, but also to their meanings and their dramatic 
operation in the publication of a scheme of emotional 
experience based on a story, a play, a poem, or perhaps 
only a descriptive title. Goldmark’s Prometheus Over¬ 
ture, for example, is furnished with the entire appa¬ 
ratus, but it is nevertheless clearly constructed in a form 
recognized as a cognate of the sonata ever since the 
days of the Italian overture. 

It is perhaps in the treatment of orchestral prefaces 
to musical dramas or spoken plays that we are most 
irresistibly led to the conclusion that the sonata form 
shrewdly persists in spite of honorable efforts to bury 
it. To be sure it does not parade itself as a sonata and 
it appears only in the first movement pattern; but this 
is the movement which the creators of the sonata made 
the foremost exponent of their belief in the pure beauty 
of design. It is not my purpose to enter into a dry 
analysis of any works. The readers of The Etude can 
readily call to mind many compositions of the kind to 
which 1 refer. Overture or vorspiel, prelude or intro¬ 
duction, call it what you will, one after another begins 
with its slow movement leading up to an allegro, in 
which the principal themes are announced and after¬ 
ward worked out, and then follows the finale, which is 
in the nature of an extended coda, and here the themes 
are again heard in their original shape and the piece 
brought to a conclusion. 

But doubtless some readers will assert that this is 
not a square cut demonstration of the continued vitality 
of the sonata form. For the sake of accompanying 
these readers into their own territory, let us temporarily 
agree with their position. Suppose then we turn to the 
Symphony proper. When Mr. Henry Hadley wrote his 
Four Seasons and North, East, South, West, he as¬ 
suredly set out on a journey into the realm of romantic 
description. Nevirtheless he contented himself with the 
symphony form of Beethoven. His musical plan was 
by no means difficult, in view of the subjects chosen for 


illustration. The chapters divided themselves spon¬ 
taneously into the movements of symphonies. 

Of course this plan is at least as old as Raff. The 
cold truth is that it is as old as Froberger and Kuhnau, 
artistic ancestors of Bach. There is not much that is 
new under the sun of the twentieth century. In the 
seductive realm of fanciful tale and poetic delineation 
the sonata form can be employed with perfect fitness 
and delightful facility provided the subject lend itself 
to the familiar procession of movements. 

But there is a still more important aspect of the 
matter. The sonata form contains within itself the vital 
principles of all musical form and therefore the 
essential methods of attaining musical beauty in any 
type of composition. It remains for us to accept what 
some curious reasoners do not receive as incontrovert¬ 
ible truth, namely that all music, in order to be admitted 
to the sacred confines of art, must be beautiful as music 
per se. In itself music possesses a supreme indepen¬ 
dence. Despite the essays at representation made since 
Jannequin wrote his vocal Cries of Paris and Kuhnau 
his Bible Sonatas, music is essentially not a representa¬ 
tive art. Of all arts it is the most abstract. The mas¬ 
terpieces of architecture are utilitarian in final purpose. 
Painting began as a religious instructor, continued as a 
decorator and a historian and persists as a perpetuator 
of human lineaments. But music is music and nothing 
else. It is, as has been said a thousand times, the abso¬ 
lute creation of the human mind. It obtains none of 
its materials from nature. Color and form are before 
the painter’s eye, but the diatonic scale was fashioned 
. in the mind of man. 

It is true that Beethoven confessed that he had always 
a picture in his mind and kept it before him to follow 
while composing, it is equally true that when he put 
forth such mighty creations as the last Quartets, he 
made no slightest hint of the nature of the pictures in 
his mind, but forced upon us the inevitable conclusion 
that all such composition was to be accepted as he 
wished the Pastoral Symphony to be accepted, as an 
expression of emotion rather than tone painting. No, 
the latest piano sonatas, the quartets, the seventh sym¬ 
phony, these are just music, and nothing else. The 
emotion in which they were conceived warms them still, 
but there is no direct communication for us. Caroll 
Beckwith, the distinguished painter, writing in the late 
issue of The Art World, declares that in painting Line 
is the product of intellect and color of emotion. In the 
sister art of music Line is extended into Form, and the 
finest technical product of the musical intellect is the 
Sonata Form, which is the epitome of all artistic law in 
the constructive department of the tonal art. If, then, 
a composer wishes to make music which shall appeal 
directly to the musical sensibilities without inviting the 
mind to find in it a message, a story or a delineation, 
why shall he not do this to-day with as little hesitation 
as Mozart or Haydn did it? What convincing evidence 
have we that Brahms contemplated anything except 
pure musical beauty when he addressed himself to the 
composition of his noble symphonies? Louis Ehlert 
could write of the C minor: 

"The first movement of the symphony is perhaps the 
most artistically important of the work. An inexorable 
causahty proceeds from bar to bar, stayed by no illu¬ 
sion, and softened only by the light of a few distant 
stars. In the introduction and finale the enigmatical 
sphinx seems to call to us. ‘That which ascends from 
me, mounting upwards to battle and to life, sinks back 
agam within me. Of all life I, the eternal riddle, am 
the beginning and the end’ ”. 

Mystic, far seeing, searching in its critical under¬ 
standing, this is none the less the cry of Ehlert’s imatri 
nation, exalted by the eloquence of pure musical beauty. 
For in all our tonal domain there is nothing, except tlie 
first movement of Beethoven's Fifth whirl, .tJjf 
beside this first movement of the SSLH' C n£rt 
majestic austerity of thematic conception, in rigorous 
logic of development, in all that makes pure music a 

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SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 571 

1 'I NG musician who is hesi- 
the brink of entering 
J' ,c professional field should at 
***** give serious thought to 
»il>iltlies which exist for the 
amateur. Many such have 
1 distinguished service to 
ait. either by the zealous em- 
■t tlieir own spare time, or 
!■ rtunate enough to be 
1 the intelligent use of their 
** patrons of musical a 

Music’s Debt to Gifted Amateurs 


| fiilililllllllllillllliilll 

e pleasure to be derived from the pu 
i I music— though the life of a professional mus 
an o not without its own agreeable features- . .. 
"* " ,,Jln that the amateur experiences the keener 
"•it .is well as greater freedom to choose the 
*•*' 1 • »i'c where his tastes may lead. 

ilnr is the reward of fame entirely out of the 
<• i "I the zealous amateur, though this should be 
• •■*'•! I'y all right-minded persons as a mere by- 

■biil rather than a worthy object of effort for its 

Vi- have before us a list of over twenty names of 
amateurs either of great eminence or deserv- 
•s remembrance for noteworthy service to music. It 
‘ m!• -us to see the wide range of condition in life 
. rrsented; there are no less than S kings, 2 ambassa- 
|" university professors, 1 military officer, 1 naval 
iurr. 1 journalist, 1 civil engineer, 1 banker, 1 timber 
ir.luut, several manufacturers, 1 doctor of medi- 
nt - I department store manager, 1 retail coal dealer, 
tubbier, 1 retired capitalist. 

David, King of Israel 

Ihc story of David, who as a shepherd boy, was no 

• i noted for his skill on the harp than for his fine 

• rksinanship with the sling, and who (far in advance 1 
his age) used music as a therapeutic treatment for 

! King Saul’s attacks of melancholia, is too familiar 
nerd recounting here. Many years later, when the 

• i! gig of time had brought unforeseen changes, and 
.'‘•I was himself king, his musical talent found full 
ii in organizing choral and instrumental forces for 
■ temple service. Among the Psalms are several 
mch hear specific directions for the nature of the 
i - unpaid men t: “For stringed instruments,” “for wind 
•triiinciits,” etc. Some are dedicated “to the chief 
usician,” It would be interesting to know who this 
-in f musician" was. Some scholars, we believe, 
n»idrr that it is a mistranslation, the correct reading 

*"iig “by the chief musician;” i. e., David himself, 
lie word Selali, which is left untranslated because of 
uMful meaning, is thought by many eminent authori- 
to indicate an instrumental interlude. If this is 
r. the music of David must have arrived at a degree 
artistic elaboration by no means primitive. 

Nero, Emperor of Rome 

lilioiigh Nero’s name has passed into a by-word 
unscrupulous selfishness and fiendish cruelty, it is 
iwant to he able to record one single good action, 
a day when actors and musicians were practically 
4ws with no civil rights, he changed the laws so 
.. permit them to share in the rights of citizenship, 
hr old story that Nero “fiddled while Rome was 
sing” needs some modification in its details, as the 
lr «3i not invented until many centuries later. What 
rally did, apparently, was to chant some verses he 
composed on "The Burning of Troy,” to his own 
mpanimcnt on the lyre. Making all due allowances 
thr tendency of courtiers to flatter, it is quite prob- 
t! it Nero was really a good singer and something 
port and composer. There is a moral to be drawn. 
i tint: We must not, in our enthusiasm for music, 
i.r to it distinctively moral qualities which it does 
>,04sets. Its emotional effect is to intensify qualities 
, ! v t |,crc—to incite the good to good and the evil 
\pply this to Germany’s former eminence in 

Henry the Eighth, of England 
, monarch, being originally designed for the 
h. was duly instructed in music, in his youth (that 
being an essential part of an 
ecclesiastical education in the 
i&^MSSt&SZz] fifteenth and sixteenth centuries). 

He attained some skill, in composi¬ 
tion and wrote two masses, sev¬ 
eral motets, anthems and secular 
songs for three and four voices, 
fourteen pieces for three viols and 
one for four viols, most of which 
remained in manuscript. His an¬ 
them, O Lord, the Maker of All 

Things, is available in print, and is still occasionally 
performed, though not a highly inspiring piece of music. 

Frederic the Great, of Prussia 

The young Frederic was a most ardent devotee of the 
flute, but was obliged to pursue his musical studies 
surreptitiously, as his stern royal father had no sym¬ 
pathy with his musical inclinations. His teacher, Quantz, 
along with himself, had several excitingly narrow es¬ 
capes from detection. When he became king, in spite 
of a most strenuous military career, he found time to 
practice the flute and to compose for it. Several of his 
compositions are yet extant, and show musical ability 
of a genuine order. He naturally became a patron of 
music, and we read of Bach once making a visit to the 
palace by royal invitation, and playing on some new 
harpsichords of Silbermann’s make, which the king was 
anxious to show him. 

Ludwig II, of Bavaria 

To this monarch’s intense and intelligent appreciation 
of music we owe the fact that he extended a helping 
hand to Wagner, and made it possible for him to finish 
his great work, the Ring, consisting of four music 
dramas —The Rhincgold, The Valkyrie, Siegfried and 
The Dusk of the Gods. He also aided him in his pro¬ 
ject for the Wagner Theaur at Bayreuth, which was 
afterward built. In view of the great credit due him 
for these kindly deeds, important not to the man 
Wagner alone, but to the whole musical world, we 
would fain pass lightly over the strange eccentricities 
* which afterward developed’ in his behavior and which 
were doubtless merely the warning prelude to that un¬ 
fortunate attack of insanity in which his earthly days 
were ended. 

Prince Rasoumowsky 

This excellent man is well known to students 6f 
musical history, through his association with Beethoven, 
with whom he was on terms of familiar friendship, 
while holding the position of Russian Ambassador in 
Vienna. The cover of the February. 1918 Etude 
shows a picture of a musical party at Rasoumowsky’s 
home, at which Beethoven was a guest. At this time, 
and for many years, Rasoumowsky had a string quartet 
meeting regularly, composed of eminent musicians. On 
occasion he played a part himself, usually second vio¬ 
lin. He was a thorough musician, and this is all the 
more surprising, as he was largely a self-made man. 
He was the son of a peasant, served in the navy, rose 
to the rank of admiral and was made a count by 
Empress Elizabeth, of Russia.. Retiring from the 
navy, he served as an ambassador. Several of Beet¬ 
hoven’s best works are dedicated to him, including the 
three String Quartets of Op. 59. 

The Minnesingers 

These were amateur musicians, who flourished in the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and were mostly of 
noble or gentle birth. In an age when church music 
was the only variety which had been given serious 
study, they devoted themselves to secular music, espe¬ 
cially love songs. In France they were known as 
Troubadours. The character, Walter von der Vogel- 
weide (of whom Walther, in Wagner’s Meistersingers, 
with some pride claims to have been the pupil), was a 
real person, and one of the most famous of the Minne¬ 
singers, and it is quite probable that both Wolfram and 
Tannhauser in Tannhduser were real historical charac¬ 
ters of the same description. 

Hans Sachs, the Cobbler-Poet and Musician 

Having given crowned heads and the aristocracy their 
full share of attention, we now pass to the humbler but 
most worthy circle of the Mastersingers. This guild 
of poet-musicians (flourishing in the fourteenth to 
sixteenth centuries) was composed of middle-class me¬ 
chanics of various trades, who pursued the art of 
music as a pastime, yet in such a serious and cut-and- 
dried manner and with so many quaint and artificial 
rules and regulations as to cause those of future genera- 

iiijn tions to indulge in innocent ridicule at 
their expense. Wagner, in fact, did 
this very thing in his one comic opera, 
The Mastersingers of Nuremburg. 
Nevertheless, their part in the develop¬ 
ment of musical art was a by no 
means i^gligible one, and some of the 
compositions of one Hans Sachs, the 
most famous of them, are still extant, 
and known to some who delve in anti¬ 
quarian research. 

Thomas Britton (the Small Coal Man) 

We know of no more inspiring example of a man in 
very humble circumstances filled with an intelligent love 
of music who, in spite of his surroundings, accom¬ 
plished great things, and was held in esteem by artists 
of the highest standing. Thomas Britton was born in 
1651, and was apprenticed to a London coal dealer. In 
course of time he started in business for himself in a 
very small way—how small, we may realize when we 
learn that he used to carry bags on his back, in making 
deliveries. We do not know where or when he acquired 
his knowledge of music, but in 1678 he established 
weekly concerts and formed a sort of club for the 
practice of music. These concerts were held in a nar¬ 
row room over his shop, reached by an outside stair¬ 
way. At first the concerts were free to all comers, the 
performers being doubtless local amateurs, but later 
on the visitors subscribed ten shillings a year each. 
Britton provided his guests with coffee at a penny a 
dish. Besides his musical attainments. Britton was a 
great reader, and so broadly and deeply informed on 
many topics of a learned nature, that in course of time 
he was able to number most noted names among his 
acquaintances and friends. The Earls of Oxford, Pem¬ 
broke, Sunderland at)d Winchelsea all valued his friend¬ 
ship because of his book-learning, and Pepusch, John 
Banister, Henry Needier, John Hughes (the poet), 
Philip Hail, Henry Symonds, Abel Wichello, Obadiah 
Shuttleworth, Woolaston (the painter), and many other 
professors and amateurs of high standing in thejr 
day were frequent habitues of Britton’s concerts. Last 
but not least, Handel, the greatest musician in England 
at that time, presided frequently at the harpsichord. 
In spite of having so many influential friends, together 
with tastes of a refined nature, Britton kept steadily at 
his honest trade, reserving music for the delight of his 
leisure hours. He died September 27, 1714, and his 
funeral was attended by many eminent men. A portrait 
of him, by Woolaston, is in the National Portrait Gal¬ 
lery in London. 

Mitrophane Petrovich Belaiev (Lumber Merchant) 

The publisher and the composer are more or less de¬ 
pendent on each other, and both are necessary (under 
modern conditions) to the development of musical art. 
During the rise of the new school of Russian music, 
represented by Borodin, Moussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsa- 
kov, Glazounov, and others, there was real need of a 
publisher who would take a sympathetic interest in 
these new paths and was at the same time possessed 
of capital and the necessary business' acumen. 

Belaiev, a retired timber merchant, came forward and 
stepped into the breach with great success, winning the 
friendship and lasting gratitude of the composers whose 
works ^ he brought out and of the musical public in 

Belaiev was born at St. Petersburg, February 10, 
1836, and after leaving school succeeded to the business - 
of his father. As a boy, he became an accomplished 
violinist, and found time to devote to quartet playing 
and other forms of chamber music. He kept up his 
interest in music, especially that of the new Russian 
school, and having retired (with considerable wealth) 
from the lumber business, a few years later (in 1885) 
he founded a publishing house in Leipsic, where he 
brought out over 2,000 compositions.of his fellow-coun¬ 
trymen. He also instituted (in Russia) a series of Rus¬ 
sian Symphony Concerts, which he also presented later 
in Paris (1889), and'in 1891 started a series of “Quar¬ 
tet Evenings” in St. Petersburg. He died January 10 

Several of the composers whose 
works were brought out by this 
same Belaiev, were men originally 
trained to other pursuits than 
music, and pursuing music merely 
as a fascinating avocation. Cesar 
Cui was professor of the art of 
fortifications in a military acad- 

Page 572 SEPTEMBER 1918 

emy; Borodin was a busy doctor of medicine; Rimsky- 
Korsakov Was a naval officer for a number of years 
before be resigned and devoted his entire attention to 

Sir George Grove (Engineer) 

The editor of the first edition of the famous Grove’s 
Dictionary of Music and Musicians, was born at Clap- 
ham, England, August 13, 1820, and educated to be a 
civil engineer. In this profession he rose to the dis¬ 
tinction of being associated with Robert Stephenson in 
the building of the great tubular bridge over the Menai 
Straits, and he was in charge of the construction of 
several important lighthouses. During this taxing and 
responsible work he found time to organize a singing 
class. His musical education seems to. have been 
largely received in early years from his mother, who 
must have been a musician of considerable attainments, 
as she was accustomed to play the accompaniments to 
the Messiah from an old copy supplied only with “fig¬ 
ured bass” under the voices. 

After a number of years of active work as a civil 
engineer, Grove was drawn into literary work of an 
editorial nature (the compilation of a Dictionary of the 
Bible), which occupied him some seven years, most of 
which were spent in London. Here he took an active 
part in the organization of the Crystal Palace concerts, 
and began to prepare a series of “analytical programs,” 
which were among the‘finest of their kind, as they 
were a labor of love with him, and he spared no 
pains to make them both valuable and interesting. This 
lead him to a study of musical scores and deep research 
into musical history. In 1873 he entered into an 
arrangement with Messrs. Macmillan to edit a great 
musical dictionary, and this occupied his attention for 
many years. He made several trips to various cities 
in Europe and elsewhere to verify information or 
to obtain additional data, especially in regard to Men¬ 
delssohn and Schubert. Schubert, by the way, was his 
favorite of all composers, and the services Grove ren¬ 
dered to the musical world in regard to Schubert's 
biography, and even in regard to the discovery and 
preservation of valuable lost and forgotten manuscripts 
of Schubert, are inestimable. Personally Grove was a 
most lovable and delightful man, and the fact much 
of his life had been spent in other quite different pur¬ 
suits, kept him always fresh and full of the enthus¬ 
iastic spirit of the amateur, as regards music, even 
after he had become deeply learned in the art. He 
passed away on May 28, 1900. 

Charles M. Schwab (Steel Manufacturer, Financier) 

Raymond Walters, in his book, The Bethlehem Bach 
Choir, gives some highly interesting facts in regard 
to Mr. Schwab, who has been such a valuable friend to 
that organization. It appears the steel master’s patron¬ 
age of musical activity is no millionaire’s fad. Since 
boyhood music has been an integral part of his life. 
He came of a musical family, and used to amuse him¬ 
self at a reed organ when he was so small that he had 
to have someone else to work the pedals for him. At 
the age of nine he began the serious study of music, and 
still continued it (under Father Bowen), when as a 
youth of seventeen he attended St. Francis College, in 
Loretto. His favorite instrument is and always has 
been the organ, but at one time he also played the 
violin, and his skill on that instrument greatly pleased 
his first employer, Captain W. R. Jones, one of the 
greatest authorities on the manufacture of steel. There 
is a persistent tradition that it was Mr. Schwab’s skill 
in music which first attracted Mr. Carnegie’s attention 
to him: this Mr. Schwab positively denies, but the 
fact that such a statement could be considered credible 
and in keeping, alone speaks volumes. Mr. Schwab 
has had a magnificent organ erected in his own home, 
and still plays it himself occasionally, though he 
employs a professional organist (Mr. Archer Gibson) 
on salary. To narrate all that Mr. Schwab has done 
(both with purse and personal effort) for the Bach 
Choir and for musical art in general, in Bethlehem, 
Pa., would fill a whole magazine article. 

Alexander Wheelock Thayer 
(Librarian, Journalist, United States Consul) 

Alexander Wheelock Thayer, who was the author of 
the most complete, sympathetic and accurate biography 
of Beethoven in existence, was born at South Natick, 
Mass., in 1817. He graduated at Harvard University, 
and for a few years was employed in the college library. 

The idea of collecting materials for a. life of . 

had been present in his mind even during * 
course, and in 1849 he was at last able to make a tw 
years’ trip to Europe with a view to furthering 
had now become the “fixed idea” of his hfe. e 
ported himself for a number of years by journa is 
work, while engaged on his great book, hving s 
times in America, sometimes in Europe. At leng 
secured appointment in the United States dip o™ a 
service, and at the time of his death was United States 
Consul at Trieste. 

We regret to be constrained to say that his book was 
translated into German and published in Germany long 
before it found a publisher in English in its original 
form: even at the present date we are not able to 
learn of any complete edition in English, but trust that 
_ __ _:_ *.u a npor -future. 

Major Henry Lee Higginson (Banker) 

Major Higginson’s name is inseparably connected 
with the history of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
which he organized in 1881 and supported financially 
until 1918, when he handed over the responsibility to a 
group of Boston gentlemen who had combined for the 
purpose of continuing the worthy enterprise. 

Mr. Higginson was born in New York in 1834, 
entered Harvard University in 1851; did not graduate, 
but after a few years' work in a business office went to 
Vienna to study music; returning to America, he 
fought in the Civil War, won repeated promotion, 
was severely wounded at Aldie, Va., in 1863. After 
the war he pursued the business of a banker and 
broker, amassing considerable wealth, which enabled 
him to become a noteworthy and valuable patron of 
music. Thanks to his years of musical education, it 
has not been with his purse alone, but with an intelli¬ 
gent and sound musical taste, that he has organized 
the famous Boston Symphony Orchestra and sustained 
it for thirty-seven years. 

Other Noted Instances 

America is rapidly developing a group of business 
men who find great joy in making music an avocation. 
In the city of Philadelphia alone there are at least a 
half dozen men of prominence in business circles who 
could easily take high rank as professional musicians 
if they choose to do so. Among them is Mr. John F. 
Braun, director of the Community Singing Associa¬ 
tion of Pennsylvania, who is also engaged in manu¬ 
facturing and large business affairs. He has sung tenor 
roles at Bayreuth and has been the soloist at several 
important oratorio performances. Another is Mr. 
Herbert J. Tily, general manager of one of Philadel¬ 
phia’s largest department stores (Strawbridge & 
Clothier). Mr. Tily has the degree of Doctor of Music, 
and is an organist composer and conductor of ability. 
Andrew Wheeler, one of the important backers of the 
Philadelphia Orchestra, is a manufacturer of iron and 
steel and is also a gifted organist and composer for the 
organ. Did space allow, this list might with justice be 
greatly extended. 

Quivers and Quavers 

Friedrich Wieck, the famous teacher, whom one 
wit called “the best known pianogogue of his time,” was 
an enemy .of affectation. He once wrote: 

“Do not make yourself comical at the keyboard 
through affectations. Violin and ’cello players strive 
to produce a tremulo by oscillating the fingers and 
pianists ape them at the keyboard. This exposes them 
to the derision of every ( piano tuner. Have you no 
understanding of the construction of the piano? Some 
of you have stormed upon it for the last ten years 
and yet you have not taken pains to obtain even a 
superficial acquaintance with its mechanism. The ham¬ 
mer, which by its stroke upon the string has produced 
the sound, falls immediately when the tone resounds : 
after that you may caress the key which has set the 
hammer in motion, fidget round on it as much as you 
please, stagger up and down over it, in your intoxicated 
passion^—no more sound is to be brought out of it 
with all your trembling and quivering. It is only the 
public that is quivering with laughter at your affec¬ 

“When ideas present themselves, go out and take a 
walk. And then you will find that which you believed 
to be finished thoughts were only beginnings of such.” 


Do You Really Know Beethoven’s 
Sonatas ? 

A PERSON whose knowledge of Shakespwe *„ 

\Z Z°one May, would scarcely be regarded as well 
vTr'sed in English literature, yet we meet with man, 
fairly well advanced students of the piano whose bowl- 
edge of Beethoven’s Sonatas .s l.m.ted to erther ,h t 
Pathetique, the Moonlight or the one in A flat with 
the Variations and Funeral March. 

This should not be so. Every player whose technic i, 
at all equal to the task, shou d at least read through 
La be familiar with the whole book-full, and able to 
distinguish intelligently between Beethoven's three 
XL—that of his early, more mature, and final part 
of his career, and should study at least one sonata 
°{ ShTriod-l«t,.r .till. r , r ™l-.IU,».gk , 1,0, 
106 110 and 111 can be perfectly grasped only by the 
most mature artists and after long yearsof study. 

Frankly however, we admit that not all Beethoven’s 
Sonatas a’re of equal value: the Op. 49. Nos. 1 and 2 
are really but sonatinas, and as such, even, are far 
inferior to many by less noted names. \\e have 
reason to believe that Beethoven himself would not 
resent this statement, were he living. In 1822, a con- 
versation is recorded with Madame C.bbim, very touch- 
ing when one thinks of this great master, whose artistic 
life had been one upward progress since the day he 
began to compose. The lady said that he was “the 
only composer who had never written anything weak 
or trivial.” “The devil 1 am 1” was the retort, “macr 
and manv of my works would I suppress if I could." 
Teachers make a great mistake when they place these 
in the hands of young pupils, as they give a very 
unfavorable first impression of Beethoven, which it 
may take long to dispel. Op. 78. in F sharp major, 
although it starts out with a charming melody, is also 
very much below Beethoven’s best. Lcnz sayi of it, 
most truly, "Beethoven’s hand has worked at it tat 
not his genius.” The same remark might be justly 
applied to the next one, Op. 79 in G. hut aside from 
these few exceptions, there is no sonata of Beethoven 
that will not richly repay the most earnest study. 

"Beethoven’s Pianoforte Sonatas" (a book on the 
subject, by Elterlein), will be found a helpful guide 
to intelligent appreciation. 

While a choice of sonatas for more special study :i 
properly a matter of individual taste, we cannot forbeu 
giving a list of those that we deem most important and 
representative, and in doing so, will, as far as possible, 
grade them progressively. But one should on to 
account regard Beethoven’s sonatas as a possible set 
of graded studies, for two reasons: first, it is not pos¬ 
sible to grade them accurately in a pedagogic sense: 
and secondly, because no intelligent musician pnewe; 
Beethoven for technic, but practices technic so Ihot it 
can play Beethoven. 

Omitting intentionally the fine but rather too-well- 
known sonatas alluded to at the beginning of thu 
article, we would list somewhat as follows:— 

First Style: Op. 14; Op. 10, No. 1 and 2 

Second Style: Op. 28; Op. 31, No. 1, 2 and 3; Op 

53; Op. 57. 

Third Style: Op. 110 and Ill. 

This list is only suggestive. Probably no two pianists 
could exactly agree on one. Better still if tta student 
gives days and nights to the preparatory reading of *» 
these wonderful compositions, and then afterward 
makes his own choice of those he desires to acquire 
as repertoire. 

For those who can secure the cooperation of a violin¬ 
ist or a violoncellist, the ten sonatas for violin an” 
piano, or the five for violoncello and piano, * 
rich and extended field. (Do not confuse these *"■■■ 
the arrangements of certain movements from the piano 
sonatas which have been made for these instruments 
which we can easily afford to neglect, as the ot'P M * 
works for any combination of instruments are in tP' 
eral greatly preferable to arrangements.) 

“Robbed Time” 

Tempo Rubato should be attempted by no pupil *^° 
is unable to play the piece correctly in strict t««c 

Tempo Rubato is a modem device, and sboraW 
used in the music of no composer before the time o 

Tempo Rubato should be made use of very sparingly, 
even in modern music. 

Tempo Rubato,” writes Charles Macphrrsou. j* * 
Rood servant but a bad master. It should be 
Fowo* t a be used as the musician die tales. ’-Cha«lE> 
W. Pearce, in The Art of the Piano Teacher. 


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Many Interesting Facts About the Tarantella 

A Historic Dance which has Inspired Many Composers 

The Following Instructive Article Appeared in Our London Contemporary, The Monthly Musical Record. 

It is from the Pen of the Well-known London Teacher of Piano, Francesco Berger 

Like so many other words in music, or connected 
with that art, the word “Tarantella” is Italian. It 
designates a particular dance, as do the other Italian 
names, “Saltarello,” “Monferina,” etc., and it is to 
be noted that most Italian dances are quick ones, 
hardly any being of the stately or languorous sort, 
like the Mazurka, or Gavotte, or Minuet. 

There is doubt as to the origin of the word; but it 
is probably derived from the Taranto, a river in 
South Italy, in what was formerly the province • of 
■Apulia. The music, in modern days is always in 6/8 
time and it mostly commences in the minor mode 
and ends in the major. Somewhat after the manner of 
“Anitra’s dance” in Grieg’s “Peer Gynt,” it works up 
from a moderately quick to a frantically fast tempo. 
It was, in the past, danced by either a man or woman, 
or by both together, who accompanied themselves with 
castanets, tambourine, or some other instrument of that 
class, in addition to the instrument or instruments that 
played “the tune.” Originally it was also sung by the 
dancers, but in modern days it is confined to being 
danced, both on and off the stage. Though this, too, 
has its exception, for Rossini has composed that excel¬ 
lent Tarantella known as “La danza” for a baritone 

The Origin of the Dance 

During the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries a sort 
of hysteria raged through Italy, not unlike St. Vitus’ 
dance. Whether this was, or was not, caused by 
the sting of “the Lycosa Tarantula,” the largest species 
of European spider, is not certain; but it was, at 
the time, generally believed to be so. Its victims could 
not be cured by ordinary medical treatment; they 
declared that they felt impelled to dance until they fell 
down exhausted, which cured them for the time. But 
when once they had been attacked they were always 
liable to further seizures. Some have therefore attrib¬ 
uted the name of the dance to this insect origin, 
although direct connection between the two has never 
been scientifically established. The illness for which 
dancing the Tarantella was the cure, took various 
forms, such as a- violent repulsion to certain colors, 
or an insatiable thirst. Those afflicted with the dis¬ 
ease in the last named variety must have had large 
families, judging by the number of their descendants! 

Composers have not been slower in appropriating the 
word “Tarantella” as title for some of their composi¬ 
tions than they have been in adopting the names of 
other dances, and, although, not very many Tarantellas 
exist, the best among them are decidedly clever pro¬ 
ductions. For the Pianoforte one could mention in 
the order of their merit; First, and by far the best, 
Thalberg; second, Chopin; third, Moszkowski; fourth, 
Stephen Heller in two examples, one original, the 
other an adaptation from Mendelssohn; fifth, Liszt in 
two examples; sixth, Weber. I place the last named, 
which forms the Finale in his Sonata in E minor, so 
late, because, though musically good enough, it 
is lacking in the true Tarantella spirit, neither 
subject nor treatment bearing out its title. 

Thalberg’s is unquestionably the finest of 
those enumerated above, and I have had the 
great privilege of hearing it played by its com¬ 
poser, though he did so but rarely. Its one- 
page introduction is an ingenious contrapuntal 
effort, stamping the composer as one who could 
think as well as play. Modern taste discards 
all introductions, whether appropriate or not, 
and on this matter I may have something to 
say on some future occasion. At first sight 
this Tarantella may look somewhat easy to the 
highly accomplished pianists of today, but it 
will tax their powers to render it with the 
ever-increasing speed and endurance which it 
demands, and to bring out with all possible 
effect the mixture of “subjects” in the tremend¬ 
ous climax it reaches in its extended Coda. 

It is difficult to understand why some pieces suffer 
from unmerited neglect, while others enjoy undeserved 
popularity. One could mention several by Schumann 
which should be more frequently heard than his Papil- 
lons; and Chopin’s Tarantella as well as his Bolero 
are quite as worthy of frequent performance as his 
valses and polanaises. Both are highly characteristic of 
their respective titles, both are good music and excel¬ 
lent pianoforte pieces. 

Moszkowski’s is a brilliantly effective composition, 
with passages and devices of modern pianism, which 
only an accomplished player should tackle. It will well 
repay the labor it exacts, for it is Moszkowski at his 
best which is not saying little. Like his Caprice 
Espangol and his grand False in B it is essentially vir¬ 
tuoso music, suited for public performance. There 
occurs in it a “descending sequence” passage of espe¬ 
cially ingenious contrivance, which might have appeared 
in small type, cadenza fashion, and it abounds in 
bravura for interlaced hands, so characteristic of its 

Of Stephen Heller’s two Tarantellas, one is an 
arrangement in his usual piquant manner of the Finale 
in Mendelssohn’s Italian Symphony; it is clever, but 
somewhat labored. The other is the well-known one in 
A flat, made so popular by the late Sir Charles Halle, 
life-long friend of the composer, and propagandist of 
his music. It may be called a Young Lady’s Tarantella, 
for although pleasing enough as music, it has not the 
“devili’y” of the true South Italian article. 

Of Liszt’s two Tarantellas, one is a simple transcrip¬ 
tion of Rossini’s Gib la luna in meso al marc, and it is 
not a very important affair. Those who have never 
heard it in its original garb may be satisfied with it, 
and it has the merit of not being very difficult. But 
Rossini’s music demands vocal interpretation from the 
same class of singer who would give an ideal perform¬ 
ance of Figaro in II barbiere. It was originally com¬ 
posed for the great Luigi Lablache, and when rendered 
by an Italian possessing the style, verve, and command 
of gesture common to that race, it is irresistibly mirth- 

Liszt’s Famous Tarantella 

Liszt’s other Tarantella is, I imagine, one of two 
pieces, named Venezia e Napoli. What the first of 
these is, I do not know. But Napoli is a pasticcio of 
two distinct subjects. It opens with an original Taran¬ 
tella, and is followed by the transcription of a popular 
Italian song. The Tarantella, it must be confessed, is 
very poor. Not to put too fine a point upon it (as 
Sam Weller would have said), it is Liszt at his worst. 
But, as though to make amends for this, the transcrip¬ 
tion of the song, which occupies the larger portion of 
the whole piece, is Liszt at his best. The modulations 
through which the theme is made to pass, and the 

A tarantella under the shadow of VESUVIUS. 

embroideries which ornament it differently at each 
recurrence, are delightful and highly effective. The song 
has a sweetly plaintive melody to the text: 

which, roughly anglicized, reads: 

“Call me no longer the pretty blonde one, 

Call me henceforth the unhappy fond one.” , 
Why Liszt should have forced two such incongruous 
matters as this melody and a Tarantella into an unnat¬ 
ural association, is indeed a riddle. 

Scattered up and down the pages of many of the 
great masters one finds movements that have much of 
the Tarantella character, although not labeled as such. 
Bach, Handel, Mozart, Scarlati, furnish specimens of 
Jhis, and might not the Finale in Beethoven’s Kreutser 
Sonata be classed as a distant relation in this numerous 
family? Balakireff too, in his remarkable pianoforte 
rhapsody, Islamey, has a movement unconsciously re¬ 
sembling that of a Tarantella, for, of course, a Rus¬ 
sian composer would not intentionally introduce a 
Neapolitan dance into a Turkish Fantasia. 

Among orchestral Tarantellas pride of place must 
be readily accorded to Mendelssohn’s Saltarello in his 
Italian Symphony. It is a most exhilerating movement, 
scored in masterly fashion, and, in its place, presenting 
a marked contrast to the solemn, processional strains of 
the preceding slow movement. Indeed one may con¬ 
sider the whole work, as well as its twin sister the 
Scotch, as among its author’s happiest inspirations; 
had he composed nothing else, these two symphonies 
would have established his immortal fame. And as 
for popularity, no symphonies ever written have been 
so often played all the world over as these two, not 
even the Eroica, the Pastoral or the C minor. 

Operatic Tarantellas 

There is a spirited Tarantella in Auber’s fine opera, 
Masaniello, brilliantly transcribed as a pianoforte solo 
by Thalberg, in his Fantaisie sur la muette de Portici, 
and also incorporated by the humble writer of these 
lines in his Masaniello in solo and duet form. Paren¬ 
thetically one may regret that Auber’s masterpiece is 
so rarely given in our opera theatres; and the same 
remark applies to his delightful Fra Diavolo, Crown 
Diamonds, and Domino Noir. The neglect of these 
works is quite unaccountable, for they abound in 
piquant melody, are most daintily scored, contain some 
excellent concerted numbers, and treat of subjects tha: 
are amusing without being vulgar, interesting without 
being philosophical. An occasional hearing of one or 
other of them would act as a refreshing antidote to 
the oppressive gloom of ponderous gods, the wailings 
of peccant women, or the weary lamentations of impos¬ 
sible heroes. 

In his opera, La Festa di Piedigrotta, written for 
Naples, in Neapolitan dialect, to a Neapolitan 
plot, Luigi Ricci has a remarkable Tarantella, 
sung and danced at the same time. It is 
primed with the real Neapolitan spirit, as 
might be expected from such a source, and re¬ 
tains this even in its transcription as a piano¬ 
forte duet. As such I have more than once 
played it in public in this country with my de¬ 
parted friend and fellow-student, Francis Ed¬ 
ward Bache, in the days of long ago—days 
when a little concerted music, either vocal or 
instrumental, formed a welcome change from 
the monotony of song and solo to which we 
are condemned today—a monotony from 
which even an air-raid might be hailed as 
affording some relief! 

Space will not permit my dwelling upon the 
Tarantellas by Raff, Nicode. Rheinberger, 
Dohler, and others, but I ought not to close 
these remarks without mentioning Raff’s Op. 

Page 57k SEPTEMBER 1918 

!fe, No. iz, which I only know in its arrangement for 
two pianos by Them. As an ordinary duet it is suffi- 
ciently effective, but as a Tarantella it betrays its non- 
Italian character very plainly. Though I have great 
; admiration for Raff generally, I find this work heavy, 
and tedious, and it has the additional defect of con¬ 
taining some old-fashioned chromatic scales. Now, some 
thousands of years ago (!) chromatic scales were a 
sparkling novelty; but they have long since outlived 
their sphere of usefulness, and, in modern days, are 
’ no better than the workhouse, viz., a refuge for the 
destitute. When a composer’s imagination dries up, 
he flies to his “friend in need,” the ready-made chro- 
, matic scale, which having no tonality of its own, 
serves him readily to reach from any point of the 
musieal compass to any other. Even so poetical a com¬ 
poser as Grieg has resorted to it in his otherwise fanci¬ 
ful and original Sonata in E. If there were no chro¬ 
matic scale, and no chord of the diminished seventh, 

many a composition would not 
instead of forming “a piece” it 
unconnected pieces. So: 

hold together at all— 
would break up into 

“Let us cry with voice emphatic: . „ 

Vivant diminished sevenths and scales chromatic. 

A List of Interesting Tarantellas 


Th. Leschetizky, Napoli, Op. 39, No. 5. 

S. B. Mills, in Ab, No. 1, Op. 13. 

F. 'Thome, in A minor. 

G. Karganoff, in Gl minor, Op. 4. 


F. Scotson Clark, Op. 56. 
Th. Lack, Op. 20. 

A. Pieczonka. 

E. Poldini. 

Paul Zilcker. 


F. A. Williams, Op. 30. 

H. Van Gael, Op. 65. 

P. Renaud, Op. 5, No. 5. 

C. W. Kern, Op. 252, No. 3. 

G. Horvath, Op. 124, No. 1. 

The Wagner Trial Again 

The Wagner Question and Nationalism 

[Editor’s NOTE.-The following excellent discussion of the 
Wagner Case reached M toojute 1« printe^d ta tee Ju] j 

•in S coim b Mtion S with S the “briefs”’ which appeared that mouth 

on pages 439 and 440.] 

1 Although not an American nor: living in America 
at present I am much interested .in the development of 
music in that country. I am uncertain, howeveff 
whether this justifies me in taking part in the"inter* 
esting trial of Richard Wagner announced in The 
Etude of February, 1918. 

It seems to me that the question resolves itself into 
a case of nationalism. A glance at the history of 
music will suffice to show that it falls into three 
periods: National music, in the sense of music being 
identified with the country of its origin, owing to the 
.comparative isolation of one country from another in 
early times. (Greek modes or tones; their adoption 
by St. Ambrose and St. Gregory; the flourish of Am¬ 
brosian and Gregorian chants all over Italy and abroad, 
consequent on the spread of Christianity; the English 
contrapunists; the School of the Netherlands; the 
Italian movement, of which the Florentine Reforma¬ 
tion forms an important part; the French clavecinistes 
and opera writers, etc.), nationalism here being in 
every case dependent on circumstances and not on 
the will of the composer. 

In Gluck, for the first time, we find music Interna¬ 
tional, universal, not belonging to any one nation or 
school, but the outgrowth and representative of all 
the musical nations and schools of his time. As he 
himself writes: “By mqans of a noble and natural 
melody a declamation true to the language of each 
nation and the character of each people, I desire to 
establish the way to produce a music proper to all 
nations, and thus to cause the ridiculous distinction be¬ 
tween national musics to disappear.” 

There is no doubt that not only did Gluck succeed 
in this endeavor himself but also that from his time 
till Wagner all the famous composers (of whom the 
greater number were born in Germany, can be classed 
as International Musicians— and, therefore, I see no 
reason why the music of this period should not be 
performed during the present war. 

With Wagner the case is very different. He marks 
the starting point of the present great Nationalist 
Movement, and his aim, like that of every nationalist 
artist, was to express the character or soul of his 
country by means of his art. As The Etude points 
• Out, the greater number of his Operas concern German 
'life, tradition and mythology, but this is the least im¬ 
portant part. No Wagner opera can be performed, 
or even listened to, intelligently without accepting the 
viewpoint (for the time being, at least,) and sharing 
the innermost emotions of the most German of all 
composers. And, just as during the present war, 
while we are engaged in fighting tooth and nail against 
German methods and German viewpoint, we should 
scarcely send our children to a German school, where 
they would imbibe this undesirable moral atmosphere, 
so I think it distinctly advisable that not only Ameri¬ 
cans but all the Allied nations should forego for the 
present the hearing of Wagner’s operas, as well as all 
modern German music.— Ruth T. Hall, Florence, Italy. 

Anything Tending to Provoke Needless 
Dissension is Untimely 

Upon the question: “Resolved, that Wagner’s operas 
should be barred from America during the war,’ I 
desire to argue against their production. First, even 
if these operas were to be sung in English, and if their 
rendition should give no direct aid to the enemy, it 
is still logical to believe that they would have a ten¬ 
dency to create more prejudice and ill-feeling than 
they would destroy—and that this feeling, though per- 
haps unjust, would more than offset any good which 
•the singing of the operas might accomplish. Wagner, 
as a composer, is universally recognized as a master, 
but that does not make it expedient that his works 
should be rendered in America at this critical time. 
Take an analogous case. Everyone recognizes the fact 
that the laborers of this country are not always treated 
with the consideration they deserve. In the fields of 
labor there are issues to be solved, adjustments to be 
made, wrongs to be righted. But that fact makes it 
no less treasonable for men doing government work 
to foment strikes and violence. 

Wagner was a great composer, granted; he lived 
before there was any thought of a conflict between 
Germany and America; he was democratic in spirit, 
hating tyranny and oppression—but that the singing 
of his operas in America to-day would not tend to 
create internal confusion and dissension is a statement 
with which the writer cannot agree. In admiring Wag¬ 
ner’s works too many people are likely to voice their 
admiration for the country that produced such a 
genius, forgetting that that same country produced 
Bismarck, Nietzsche and the present emperor. Voic¬ 
ing admiration for Germany would tend to create more 
internal strife than could possibly be compensated for 
by the rendition of the operas. Another reason why 
these operas should be temporarily abandoned is that 
thousands of people will thus be educated to appre¬ 
ciate the music of other masters, whereas now their 
only pet is Wagner. Moreover, it would give Ameri¬ 
can composers an opportunity to get their own music 
before the public. Furthermore, it should be remem¬ 
bered that the surest way to immortalize any institu¬ 
tion is to try to kill either the institution or its foun¬ 
der. This is the history of martyrdom. After the war 
Wagner will come back stronger than ever. People 
will begin to realize that it is impossible to destroy 
either the man or his music. They will realize, for 
instance, that Tristan and Isolde are not so much per¬ 
sonalities as they are symbols of the love between the 
sexes; that Parsifal is the emblem of purity, and that 
all of Wagner’s characters represent principles rather 
than people. I repeat that Wagner will be more popu¬ 
lar than ever after the war, but at present it would be 
both inexpedient and morally wrong to continue the 
rendition of his immortal songs.— James M. Warnack 

Even the most fascinating and congenial employ¬ 
ments have their moments of boredom, while the most 
dismal occupations have some few redeeming features 
Music teachers should make the most of the pleasant 
features of their work, and avoid impatience at its 
occasional drawbacks. As Douglas Jerrold once said • 
“The ugliest of trades have their moments of pleas¬ 
ure. Now, if I were a grave digger, or even a hang¬ 
man, there are some people whom I could work for 
with a good deal of enjoyment.” 


A Business-Like Fall Beginning 

By William Urhart Westcott 

The business man depends upon checkmg up at evo, 
steo in his work. He must do th.s to know whether 
he has everything attended to The checking i s done 
when the work is complete. Here is a list which the 
teacher who aspires to be orderly and progressive nay 
use for checking up when the season starts. It repre- 
sents the various steps in the preparation of material. 

If you have completed these, check them off on this 
list If you have not, find out why you have not done 
them whether they should be done. The absence 0 f 
plpment may explain why you are not doing aU 



a. Copy completed. 

b. Printing completed. 

c. Distribution plan made up. 

d. Mailed. 

Newspapers and Magazines 

a. Space secured and contract signed 
b Copy prepared and delivered in time 

Follow up system 

a. Letters sketched out. 

b. Book or card system for keeping applications 
Letter Heads, Bills. Cards, etc. 

Music and Supplies 

a. Inventory of needs for the season. 
Instruction Books. 





b. Order for purchases and “On Sale" made up 

and sent. 

c. Materials received and checked up. 

Musical Events for Season 

a. Pupils’ Recitals. 

b. Lectures and Concerts pupils should attend. 

c. Opening Recital in September or October. 
New Furnishings 

a. Furniture. 

b. Instruments (tuned, etc.). 

c. Library. 

Clubs and Classes 

a. Plan for season mapped out. 

b. Materials ordered and secured. 

Is German Music at a Standstill? 

Sir Henry Wood, who recently declined the post of 
conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, re¬ 
cently made the following comments upon the music oi 
the day in the London Observer: 

“After the war, moreover, men who have been for 
years in the trenches will come back dying for classical 
music. I mean the liest music, not dull music, for no 
fine classic is ever dull. There ought to be after * e 
war a tremendous uplift for orchestral music, and also 
for choral music, for I think the choirs will be foil of 
new members. 

"Unfortunately there are no new .Russian novelties, 
because we cannot get into touch with the Russian 
composers. Once Russia gets straight again the future 
for her music is. I consider, very strong. There is a 
•tremendous lot of character about Russian music. 
Russian composers have a great gift for orchestral 
color. At times it may be rather too Eastern, too Ori¬ 
ental, but that is a good fault. 

"German music is at a standstill. Outside 
Strauss, who is a musical genius, there are no nouMe 
German composers. I consider the British school to¬ 
day far in advance of the - German. Our youngef 
school of composers are much stronger than any ot 
the younger school of German composers. It *' 11 
also do a lot of good in America, for they «*•* a 
little too much dominated by Germanism, as » c * trt 

“In French musical art. too. there is much gr« ttr 
subtlety and color, much greater refinement, and a 
wider sense of atmosphere. Look at Debussy; »'•«** 

great man he was! The French have experimented- 
they have produced novelties and original effects. 
none of the stodgy old Germans ever did really <*r- 
many has lived on her past tradition, and that tra 1 
tion is over. I have no use for modern German music 
The great masters, of course, will live forever, and 
must be played.” 


SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 575 



Helps in Training the Thumb 

IIa ' /ill 


. A ‘Vj 

In playing the piano or organ a well-trhined thumb 
is an important item. Its special exercise should usu¬ 
ally begin within the first or second month, when two 
lessons per week are given regularly, so that when the 
pupil is ready to begin the practice of the scales the 
thumb shall be in readiness for its peculiar tasks. If 
it is not thus early prepared the scale will be found 
much more difficult than necessary, and scale passages 
may never become smooth or rapid. 

In all technic no system is measurably complete 
which does not include other training than that of the 
muscles. The training of nerves, motor and sensor, 
should be an integral part of the work; also the exercise 
of tendons, ligaments and cartilages of the hand. A 
thorough consideration of all these elements is profit¬ 
able and result-producing. 

It should be observed, first of all, that the thumb 
has three sections (phalanges), as each finger has. It 
is also necessary to notice that the hinge or joint in 
which the thumb acts as it rises and falls is only about 
an inch (or half an inch) from the wrist. This is 
almost always the most inactive joint in untrained 
hands. It therefore needs especial care from the 

Thumb Gymnastics; Slow Motions 

Preliminary gymnastics may include three principal 

1. Sidewise (horizontal) motion. 

2. Up and down (vertical) motion. 

3. Rotary motion. 

There is an advantage in beginning all exercises with 
each hand separately. The left hand is the more flex¬ 
ible and trainable; it will succeed better than the right 
hand in its first efforts. It will therefore influence the 
right hand well and sooner lead to good success in 
many respects. 

The first gymnastic exercise of the thumb should 
begin by laying the left hand flat upon a table with 
fingers extended and close together, with the thumb 
close to the hand. The motion should be regulated by 
slow counts, “one—two—one—two,” etc. With each 
recurrence of the word “one” the thumb is to move 
somewhat quickly away from the hand or back to it, 
without leaving the surface of the table. All three 
sections of the thumb should participate in the motion. 
The point of the thumb should be carries away from 
the hand as far as it can be without straining. From 
ten to twenty double motions should be made. 

Next, the thumb of the right hand should be exer¬ 
cised in the same manner. 

No. 2, the simple up-and-down motion of the thumb 
is not so easy as some persons imagine, if it be well 
done. A really vertical motion is not secured at once 
by many beginners without special guidance. This 
guidance should take the following form and it should 
ensure the desired result. 

Let the pupil lay the left hand flat upon the table. 
Have fingers extended and about a quarter of an inch 
apart. Have the thumb also extended and as nearly 
straight as possible. Let the teacher take two pencils 
and hold them exactly upright with their large ends 
resting on the surface of the table, ‘one on each side of 
the pupil’s thumb. Between these two upright pencils 
require the pupil to raise and lower the thumb ten times 
while counting. The thumb must act as a whole, all 
parts together, as though it had only one joint (that 
is the hand-joint, close to the wrist). 

The up motion should occur with the word “one,” a 
pause with the thumb during the word “two,” and it 
should drop quickly and loosely with the recurrence of 
the word “one.” Repeated motions should be made 
while the counting goes on with strict regularity. 

After two or three days’ practice the time may be 
quickened somewhat, provided, however, that it can be 
done without causing the slightest motion of the hand. 
The thumb, alone, should move. This exercise should 

be used from three to six weeks, then discarded for two 
weeks, then resumed for another period of six weeks. 

In exercise No. 3, for rotary motion, the point of the 
thumb is to move in a circle. It should make as large 
a circle as possible. The pupil should be careful that 
all sections of the thumb act together. He may need 
the help of the teacher. If so, the teacher will grasp 
the first section of thumb (that section nearest the 
wrist) taking hold of the flesh between the thumb and 
forefinger, and rotating this inactive section of the 
thumb for the pupil several times. Then require the 
pupil to try the same motion himself. The teacher may 
need to continue this help for several days No count¬ 
ing is needed in the practice of rotary motion. Twenty 
continuous rotary motions are usually needful as form¬ 
ing one exercise. 

It will be found that rotary motion makes the hand- 
joint more supple and flexible. It should be continued 
for three or four weeks, then discarded for a week or 
two, then resumed for two or three weeks more, and 
thus proceed for some months. 

After three or four weeks on the preceding exer¬ 
cises, the practice of passing the thumb under the hand 
should begin. It should continue for at least two 
weeks (in some cases longer). The scale should never 
be begun until drill on this exercise has prepared the 
way for the thumb to act loosely and precisely under 
the hand. 

Getting Ready for Scale Study 

First. Begin the exercise by turning the left hand 
over and laying it on the table with the palm upward. 
Now, keeping the thumb as close to the palm as possi¬ 
ble, move it very, very slowly over the palm as far as 
possible; then move it back to usual position. Repeat 
this ten times if mot too fatiguing. 

Hands are as different as people are; some persons 
find this exercise very severe at first. The time to 
stop practicing is when an exercise begins to be fatigu¬ 
ing. One should not practice until it is really painful; 
that is unwise and dangerous. The hands should alter¬ 
nate three or more times in this exercise. 

It should be noticed that as the thumb moves over 
the palm it will also move away from it somewhat, but 
the separation should be as small as possible. This slow 
practice should continue for the time between one lesson 
and the next. If it is then well done, proceed farther as 

Second. This second exercise presupposes that the 
fingers have been already trained as regards their curva¬ 
ture and control in keeping their curvature. For any 
adequate training of this kind no less than four lessons 
are needful, therefore these particular exercises for 
the thumb would not properly begin before the fifth 
or sixth lesson at the earliest. This plan of procedure 
also presupposes that two lessons per week are given 

Begin this exercise by placing the left hand on the 
table in normal position for playing, with fingers well 
curved. Move the thumb slowly under the hand as far 
as possible, at least so that it shall be directly under the 
fourth finger, gliding on the surface of the table and 
hack with the same degre of slowness, 10 times. 

After this drill, raise, the thumb half an inch from 
the table and carry it under the hand, at the same uni¬ 
form height and back, slowly, 10 times. These exer¬ 
cises must be used daily for three weeks until quite 
perfect. If the pupil has a very flexible hand, natur¬ 
ally, he will be able to carry the thumb under the fifth 
finger after a few days. 

Third. Bending and pressing the thumb back to 
enable it to reach farther over the palm can be used 
to a moderate extent. It must be used with utmost 
care as the least undue forcing might injure it perma¬ 

The foregoing exercises consist mostly of slow 

Cynmnastics With Quick Motions 

All the gymnastics which have been mentioned thus 
far should be continued for three or four weeks in slow 
time after which quicker motions may be practiced. 
The quickest motions should be used sparingly, not 
more than onb time out of six or eight. Convulsive¬ 
ness or spasmodic action should be avoided. Every 
motion should be accurate and elastic. All motions 
should be continuous and regular in their, recurrence. 

The development of nerve force and vital force in the 
quick motions needs special notice here, for which, 
however, we cannot here take the space. 

Thumb Training on the Keyboard 

The following exercises present only one outline of 
work (among many which might be given) for a com¬ 
prehensive training of the thumb for its playing tasks. 

Exercise No. 1, (a) and (b), following, should he 
prepared for by (a) careful shaping of fingers (thumb 
included; ( b) correct poise of forearm; (c) perfect 
relaxation of all hand muscles and upper arm and 
shoulder muscles; (d) exact adjustment of fingers on 
keys, (location); ( e) definite idea of the kind of 
motions requisite, also the amount of motion. 

Kind of Motion Requisite 

1. Preliminary upward motion of the thumb (to 
height of quarter of an inch), keeping it poised in the 
air, keeping it thus poised through .the four counts of 
the rest. 

2. Loose dropping of the thumb to make the first 
tone. (If the teacher lias carefully trained the fingers 
so that each one has learned to act alone and thus * 
secure its true independence, this dropping of the thumb 
will be made, as it should be, without any jar of the 
hand or .displacing of the other fingers.) 

3. At count “three” in the second measure the second 
finger should rise loosely about a quarter of an inch 
and remain poised in the air through “four” and until 

4. At count “one" of the next measure the second 
finger is to drop, making its tone. 

5. Instantly after, the thumb is to rise just enough 
to release its key. 

6. At count “three” the thumb is to move under the 
hand (a sidewise motion) in a horizontal line. 

7. At count “four” the thumb is to rise without 
disturbing the hand (a vertical motion). 

8. At count "one” the thumb is to drop loosely pro¬ 
ducing its tone. 

9. Instantly afterward the second finger is to rise 
just enough to release its key. 

The same detailed analysis of requisite motions 
should be made for c and d. 

Exercise 1. 

The second exercise which now follows should have 
its single elements specified in detail as they have 
been above for Exercise 1. It should be observed that 
the thumb here requires two stages of motion, in the 
first stage poised above A (in the left hand) in the 
second stage above G. 

Page 576 SEPTEMBER 1918 

Exercise 3. 

Twenty times each. 

In Exercise 3 the thumb is (a) to move sidewise 
under the hand in the second measure while the unem¬ 
ployed fingers accurately keep their places; ( b ) it is to 
play the note in the third measure without disturbing 
the fingers' or jarring the hand. 

The rest at the beginning of the exercise has the 
same purpose as in Exercises 2 and 3, namely for the 
upward preparatory motion of the thumb. 

Exercise 4. 

Ten times each. Observe directions below before 
using this exercise. 

In No. 4 we most observe the single microscopic' ele¬ 
ments as strictly as in No. 1, in detail, in their exact 

Concerning Chopin as a teacher we are told that “he 
prepared the hand with infinite care.” The earnest 
student will need infinite care with the following small 
details if he is to do the best work and make the best 

The single items requisite (absolutely essential for 
Exercise 4) are as follows: 

Exact adjustment of fingers to keys being assured: 

1. Up motion of thumb at word one, the same 
remaining poised in the air through the four counts 
(first measure). 

2. Loose dropping of thumb for its first tone at word 

3. At word “three” rising of second finger prepara¬ 
tory to third measure. 

4. At word “one" <jf third measure second finger 
drops and instantly after the thumb rises to release its 

5. At word “two” third measure, the thumb‘moves 
sidewise under the hand in a horizontal line quarter of 
an inch above normal key level, to a point above the 
middle of the third key in the series (occupied by the 
third finger). 

6. At word “three” in the same measure (the third) 
the third finger rises remaining poised above its key 
for two counts. 

7. At word “one” (fourth measure) the third finger 
drops to make its tone, and instantly after the second 
finger rises to release its key. 

8. At word “two” (fourth measure) the thumb 
moves farther under the hand, quarter of an inch 
above keys to a point above the middle of the fourth 
key in the series (occupied by the fourth finger). 

9. At word “three” (fourth measure) the fourth 
finger rises and remains in air above its key for two 

10. At word “one” (fifth measure) the fourth finger 
drops to make its tone and instantly after the third 
finger rises to release its key. 

11. At word “two” (fifth measure) the thumb moves 
farther still under the hand still a quarter of an inch 
above keys to point above the middle of the fifth key. 

12. At word “three” the thumb rises without disturb¬ 
ing the hand and remains poised thus for two counts. 

■ 13. At word “one” (sixth measure) the thumb drops 
to make its tone, and instantly after the fourth finger 
rises to release its key. 

14. At word “one” of the following measure the 
thumb rises to release its key. This up motion of the 
thumb should be as loose and independent as any other 

15. At word “three” the thumb is to return by lateral 
(notion to its natural position in readiness for repeating 
the exercise. 

Exercise 5. 

Ten times each. Observe directions below before 
beginning this exercise. 

•> „ » 

"i r- A -’ 

The requisite motions should be specified as care¬ 
fully for this exercise as for preceding exercises. The 

pivotal motion of the thumb in the third 

count three i, the one .hich need, «*»L<5“g£ 

Young teachers are perhaps more apt to 

about this motion on the part of their pupi s . . 

other. The reason for this is that this is a 

motion. It is a combination of motions of a 

and thumb. The hand and arm are the principa 

ers while the thumb only moved by yielding o • 

But the thumb must be sure to yield very loosely.^, 

hand and arm should be carried along at a uniform 

height and not lifted above the height which they 

at the beginning. The finger tips should,not leave tn 

keys in this transfer of fingers, hand and arm, but 

simply glide over while continuously feeling them. 

Exercise 6. 

Ten times each. Observe the same directions as tn 
Exercise 5. 

All of the foregoing exercises are preliminary to 
the practice of the scale. The first scale-practice may 
now be taken up in slow tempo with assurance of the 
best results. The foregoing training of the thumb will 
enable the student to play with needful movements, 
rightly timed and rightly proportioned. 

At this stage of the work it will be found prac¬ 
ticable to use a one-octave scale or a two-octave scale 
for two or three lessons only. The student may then 
be given a five-octave scale, but in one direction only, 
namely, in ascending with the right hand alone, and 
in descending with the'left hand alone. The plain, sim¬ 
ple reason for this is that the motions and the finger¬ 
ing are the same in each octave, hence the simplicity 
which warrants such a long scale at this early stage. 

After this long scale has been practiced in the first 
five keys (or even no more than two or three) in slow 
tempo the following exercises may be used to prepare 
the thumb for greater fluency in playing the scale. 

Exercise 7. 


How Do We Memorize? 

By Ellen Amey 

Tt is generally understod that music is "Kmorized 
, u form of mental imagery. There are 

n r ° Ug Lceres thaT may make their appearance as a 
thrC onse to the natural gifts of the piano student 
Thus he student may have a visual, an aural, or a 

. image- fbr the ability to memorize, like other 

t<,C ( t is m individual matter and differs not only in 
fWree but in the channel through which the impres- 
sion is’ made. Images do not stand out as perceptions 
they are less detailed, more fragmentary, and more 
fickle or vacillating. However, through association or 
a recognition of basic forms in the material of which 
music is nufde, impressions may be made to stand out 
more clearly in detail and become less to sudden 
obhteratTon It is in this way that those who have 
no special gift of mental imagery may learn to mem- 
orize whole passages at sight. 

Take for example, the first eight measures of the 
Chopin posthumous IValts in E minor. 




The same scheme in 12/4 measure is to be recom¬ 
mended in some instances when pupils need somewhat 
more of drill for the thumb. 

It is recommended to spend only a few days on the 
foregoing exercises then to pass at once to the follow¬ 
ing. The reason for this is that elasticity of touch is 
best retained in group playing, if not in long tones of 
two counts or four counts, rather than by practice of 
one tone for each count as in the foregoing exercise. 

„ . I I ! 1 I I o ~ (etc. throughout the keyboard- 

For the first preparation for fluency in scale playing 
the foregoing is an important exercise but as the sec¬ 
ond and third preparations for fluency in scale playing 
are concerned with the fingers (instead of the thumb) 
they have no place in this article. 

One accustomed to chord forms will see at a glance 
that the passage is made up. from the E minor triad— 
E, G, B,—and that the only auxiliary notes are those > 
at the beginning of each measure: that each of these 
is one-half step below the first note of the chord that 
follows. When all the facts have been noted, the 
passage (through association with something already 
known) has become as much a product of the mind ai 
though created by the student himself. Ease in playing 
it, however, will depend upon the tactual image and this 
may be strengthened and made reliable by careful atten¬ 
tion to the form in which the chord is given, and to the 
fingering at the point where the thumb by a lateral 
movement makes possible the next higher chord 

Motives embodying more elaborate invention and 
changes of harmony do not appear as clear 00 the sur¬ 
face as a passage composed of one chord. To be 
understood they require a knowledge of note and 
chord relation. Thus in the first-thought phrase 0i the 
motive following the introductory passage we find two 
chords to give out the harmony. 

Pointed Paragraphs on Practice 

By Fred Elder 

As you practice so, also, shall you play. If you 
practice in a careless, slovenly manner, you must not 
expect to play like a finished artist. 

Unpracticed lessons are like groceries that are still 
in the package—they must be unwrapped, prepared and 
digested in order to get the good out of them. 

Music lessons are a highly perishable commodity. 
They are best when fresh. The time to begin practic¬ 
ing a lesson is before you change your clothes after 
coming home from your teacher's studio. 

Do not be a roustabout, constantly changing from 
one teacher to another. You will simply acquire qll 
of the bad and none of the good qualities of each 
teacher’s method. Furthermore, you will never find 
a teacher who will enable you to play without you 
doing your part—practicing. 

The dominant seventh having B for its root is. 
each case, followed by E minor, the triad on the key¬ 
note. In the first measure of this period we find only 
pure basic material. B. DS. FS and A; the repeated 
note in the motive is found to be the root of the 
chord. In the second measure take away the auxiliary 
note A#, and there is left the E minor triad: the third 
measure requires only two eliminations, or, if C be 
treated as the addition of a ninth in the chord, there 
will remain for elimination only AS; the fourth meas¬ 
ure gives only the notes of the chord. 

A knowledge of basic material—scales and chords— 
permits the assimilation of these forms in large units- 
attention to the construction and progressions makes 
a more vivid impression of details, and thus strengthens 
natural gifts; but to the tactile sense, specifically 
as the motor sense, is intrusted the responsibility 01 
correct muscular movements. Assurance in this dic¬ 
tion can only be obtained by familiarity through rep^‘ 
t' on : the fingers should never be allowed to hinder 
through inadequate preparation or digressions ”0® 
the fingering to be used. 


SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 577 

The Teachers’ Round Table 

Conducted by N. J. COREY 

This department is designed to help the teacher upon questions pertaining to "How to Teach,” “What to Teach,” etc., and not technical problems pertaining to 
Musical Theory,-History, etc., all of whichproperly belong to the Musical Questions Answered department. Full name and address must accompany all inquiries. 


“I have studied music for a number of years, play 
difficult compositions and memorize with compara¬ 
tive ease, and yet, when asked to play, I blunder 
shamefully even in the simplest pieces. It makes 
no difference how thoroughly I know them. Would 
taking lessons help me to overcome this? I am 
about thirty-five. Any advice will be appreciated.” 

—D. E. 

You seem to be troubled with inherent nervousness, 
and lade of experience in playing before people in your 
younger years. The only way you can pull yourself 
together now is to seek every possible opportunity to 
play before friends, even bringing the various mem¬ 
bers of your family into requisition as audience, turn 
by turn. You have an over amount of self-conscious¬ 
ness which affects you mentally the moment you feel 
some one is listening. You have become too conscious 
of the fact that you blunder when anyone is listening, 
and have, therefore, perhaps become obsessed with the 
fear of making mistakes under these conditions. Until 
you can go to the piano with a feeling of confidence 
in yourself and your own powers you are likely to suf¬ 
fer the same trouble. Therefore, as a matter of drill, 
try and enlist some one as a listener, to whom you can 
play frequently. A number of friends who are willing 
to take turns, so you may have daily practice, will be 
of great assistance. You will thus gradually become 
accustomed, and may center your attention on your 
music without its being drawn av^iy by your ultra-con¬ 
sciousness of an alien presence. Your inherent nerv¬ 
ousness may be the result of your physical condition 
being below par. In this connection you can only do 
such things as will build up your system and make you 
stronger. The mere act of taking lessons would not be 
so much help, except that your study would be under 
direction, and you would have some one before whom 
you would be forced to play. The lessons would 
improve your musicianship, and to that extent would 
increase your confidence. There is no player, no mat¬ 
ter how advanced, who is not the better for contact 
with a superior mind along the lines in which he or she 
is working. 

Wilful and Intractable 

“I have a girl of sixteen who reads well In third 
grade, but will not practice. When I appeal to 
her for better lessons she always replies, ‘I am 
only studying to please my parents.’ She has a 
very good musical ear, but does not care to play 
herself, although she enjoys hearing others. Is 
there anything I can do?”—T. P. 

A girl of sixteen ought to be old enough to appre¬ 
ciate something of the humor of the situation with 
which she has presented you. The reason she gives 
for not learning her lessons is that she is trying to 
“please her parents.” In what particular way does 
her failure to take advantage of what they are spend¬ 
ing their money for give them pleasure? Do the 
parents give her the following instructions: “Here 
are fifty dollars. Take them to a music teacher and 
present them to her with our compliments. Tell that we do not expect you to give any attention 
to your study, either at the lessons or at your prac¬ 
tice hour. Tell her we are very much pleased that 
you make no effort to please us, and that the more 
money you waste without securing any return value, 
the more pleasure it will afford us. That it is very 
unusual for parents to wish their children to make 
any effort to respond to their desires. Although 
you may state that you are studying in order to 
please us, yet we are unable to determine just what 
you are doing in regard to your playing that will 
please us. You certainly are not improving in a 
manner that will provide us with much pleasure. 
P.erhaps that children should make any special 
effort to please their parents may be a very peculiar 
notion on the part of those who do everything and 
make every sacrifice for their children.” 

It is rare that a pupil of this sort can be induced 
to take any but a superficial interest in her playing. 

I infer from your letter as a whole that she is incor¬ 

rigible. The best you can do is to try and arouse 
hqr interest in pieces of a light character. Serious 
study will be impossible for a time at least. Later 
she may come to her senses. Technic and etudes 
will rep,el her, as well as what is termed the classical 
repertoire. As a teacher you will need to adapt 
yourself to an extreme case like this. It is doubt¬ 
ful whether you can make such a pupil a credit to 
you. If you object to work along this line, the only 
thing you can do will be to decline to teach her 

Fostering Interest 

“I have a pupil of ten years who has studied a 
year, but cannot play anything. She knows the 
notes and understands time, and can play with one 
hand alone. I have used Standard Graded Course, 
Grade I, and Bugbee’s First Grade Studies, and 
tried little pieces of sheet music, but her mother 
thinks the music bill Is too high. What can a 
teacher use to arouse Interest In such a pupil? Are 
there stories that I can buy to tell her which will 
help?”—G. A. 

A frequent problem with every teacher who has 
many pupils. It is a puzzle that admits of no solution. 
If a jar is packed full of a given commodity, even 
though of little value, it is hard to put anything else 
in it. Where there is absolutely no interest in music 
it is often better to give up the effort. When.the 
trouble is careless indifference there is some hope of 
future awakening, but even in these cases the results 
are often small. When you, a teacher of considerable 
experience, and whose pupils make excellent progress, 
find a pupil who, at the end of a year, cannot put the 
two hands together on the simplest -things, the prob¬ 
ability is that the student is a hopeless case. Telling 
stories to such a pupil will have but little effect She 
will enjoy the story while you are telling it, but when it 
conies to the hard work of practice in order to learn 
her little piece, she will apply herself just as little. Tell¬ 
ing little stories often helps to arouse interest in a 
given piece, but in this case you seem to have every¬ 
thing to supply. She apparently needs to go over the 
ground again. Presser’s First Steps will be good for 
this, and you can use the simple pieces to try and 
teach her’to play with both hands together. Playing 
little duets with the teacher is often a help. For this 
The Very First Duet Book will be the thing. For 
those who find the cost of sheet music a burden, you 
can use some of the Collections, of which there are 
many that are excellent, such as Very First Pieces, 
First Parlor Pieces, Bugbee-Davis’ Merry Rhymes for 
Childhood Times, etc. You can accumulate a list of 
these for your library, and choose from them for 
your various pupils. 

A Thick-Set Hand 

O. H. G. sends a diagram of his hand, and wishes to 
know if it will be possible to develop great technic with 
a rather heavy thick-set hand with short fingers. In 
reply I would say that long, slender, tapering fingers 
usually occasion the most trouble, and seem to be the 
most devoid of vitality. Modern piano playing demands 
absolute muscular control. Difficulties are often ex¬ 
perienced with thick clumsy hands, but I think ulti¬ 
mately they accomplish better results. MacDowell had 
small closely knit hands, and yet his compositions 
abound in wide-spreading chords, and he was by nature 
one of the most fleet-fingered pianists before the public. 
Sherwood’s hand was similarly formed, and yet he 
excelled in octave playing. It is not necessary to raise 
your fingers high before striking. Indeed this is 
impossible to any hand in swift passage work. Hold 
the main body of the hands high enough from the keys 
so there is plenty of opportunity for the downward 
stroke in attacking the keys. Great flexibility in the 
knuckle joints does not necessarily imply that the 
fingers should rise high above the level of the main 
body of the hand. With proper training I see no 
reason, ■from the drawing you have sent, why you 
should not be able to develop great skill. If not, it 
will be from other auses. 

Music of Lighter Play 

“I have a number of students who object to 
higher class music, and I do not wish to lower my 
standard and teach ‘rag-time.’ Could you give me 
a list of pieces of decided melody and rhythm 
that I could give them, and perhaps thus lift them 
gradually higher? They are in the third and 
fourth grades.”—M. S. 

Almost every teacher has this problem to meet. The 
pupils are not to blame if both Nature and Environ¬ 
ment has prevented them from having a cultivated taste. 
The desire to learn something they can understand is 
laudable, and the chance of their being led higher is 
much greater if you lead them from the known to the 
unknown, from the lower to the higher, than if you try 
to force them to play that which they at present dis¬ 
like. The following popular pieces are a level higher 
than trash, and will please your students: 

In the third grade: Williams, In the Park, Op. 35, 
On the Lake, Op. 48; Lindsay, Church Bells Ringing; 
Morrison, Golden Meadows; Gilis, Valse Caracteris- 
tique; Martin, Courtly Dance; Kling, In Cloudland, 
Waltz; Sanford, The Barn Dance; Lindsay, Priscilla, 
Three Step; Pieroni, Irma Mazurka; Wolcott, Full 
of Play; Galbraith, Sweet Lavender; Ringuet, Valse 
Venitienne, Op. 41; Lieurance, Down the Stream; 
Shackley, Twilight Song. 

In the fourth grade: Lindsay, Fraternal March; Fry- 
singer, Mazurka Impromptu; Rathbun, Twilight on the 
Mountains, Valse Caprice, Valse Impromptu, 3d 
Valse Impromptu, Vesper Chimes; Kern, Valse Episode, 
Ariel Op. 151; Necke, Rapsodia Zingara; Chaminade, 
Scarf Dance; Merz, Polacca Brillante; Bohm, Frolic of 
the Butterflies; Christiani, Valse Idylle; Lack, Aragon- 
aise; Mora, In Confidence; Kroeger, Swing Song; 
Kern, Mountain Echoes; Eggeling, Spanish Dance; 
Atherton, Mazourka di Ballet. 


“I am discouraged because my rapid progress of 
three years seems to be lagging. When 1 concen¬ 
trate I play well, but am lacking In this. How can 
I Improve It? 

Although I was playing my scales at a very 
rapid rate, yet I recently found myself unable to 
play them at all, the smoothness and evenness upon 
which I prided myself having disappeared with the 
velocity. Must I go back to the beginning? My 
former relaxation is becoming less and less, and I 
play with effort. I have been playing fifth and 
sixth grade pieces with ease.”— Musician. 

Although you indicate results, you request me to 
diagnose causes without stating the amount of work 
you have been doing. I assume, however, that your 
trouble comes from a combination of causes. Perhaps 
you have been trying to advance too rapidly, at the 
same time devoting too much time to practice. Under 
these conditions an almost unconscious rigidity would 
develop, which would increase and land you exactly in 
the condition you describe. Your muscles seem to 
have become overtired from these two causes, and 
therefore have rebelled to the breaking point It is 
not a return to the beginning that you need, but abso¬ 
lute rest of all your playing muscles for about a month. 
During this time your hands should be exercised very 
moderately, no hard work, and very little playing on 
the piano. When you return to work, begin with about 
a half hour’s practice, selecting music that is moderately 
difficult for you. Do not try to force anything, but let 
your progress be very gradual. Whether it be pieces, 
etudes, or exercises, the principle must be rigidly 

Your lack of concentration should be studied from 
every sort of work you engage in, and ar. endeavor 
made to fix your mind upon what you are doing and 
keep it there. In music there is no better exercise in 
concentration than memorizing. Devote a given 
amount of time to this daily, using easy pieces first 
and then those which are more involved. Easy pieces 
of Bach will force you to keep your mind closely 
fixed upon what you are doing. In all your practice, 
try to keep your mind from wool-gathering, and there¬ 
by hold yourself to your task. You will thereby 
gradually improve. 

Page 578 SEPTEMBER 1918 

An Inventory of Your Teaching Assets 

At least once a year a business house always takes 
an inventory of actual assets The stock and capital, 
real estate, outstanding accounts and good will are all 
carefully appraised and listed. This is the only way in 
which the business man can determine whether he is 
solvent or not. 

The teacher’s income is often regarded as his only 
asset. This is wrong. His assets are those things 
which he can depend' upon to bring him an income. 
It is only by measuring them and estimating upon 
them that he can determine whether he is able to com¬ 
pete with his rivals. 

The following are some of the teacher’s important 
assets. In the column at the right put down in per¬ 
centage what your estimate .of your assets is. Be 
honest with yourself. If your equipment for its size 
is not right up to the minute don’t put down 90 per 
cent., but something really inventorying its worth, pos¬ 
sibly 40. 

When you are done, add up the percentages, strike 
an average, and see where you stand—also where you 
need to improve. 

Asset Per Cent. 


Is your health above or below the averaget 
Do you feel fit all of the time or only a little 
of the time? How many times have you been 
obliged to employ a doctor during the last two 
years? What does your bill for medicines, etc., 
amount to? What is your chance of securing 
life insurance in a company which conducts a 
rigid examination of all policy holders? 


How is your preparation for your work? The 
best cowboy in the world is helpless if his lasso 
fails to reach the steer by one inch. Thousands 
of teachers are aspiring to do things which their 
preparation does not encompass. You must have 
the training. It does not matter how you get the 
training, how expensive or how inexpensive your 
lessons may have been—you cannot hope to suc¬ 
ceed and you do not deserve to succeed unless 
your training is commensurate with what you 
are trying to do. Put down the price you re¬ 
ceive for your lessons, and ask yourself, “Is 
any other teacher in this community pre¬ 
pared to give more than I am giving for the 
same fee?” Then put down the percentage of 
your preparation asset 


How is your studio equipmentT Is your 
piano what it should be ? Do you keep your in¬ 
struments in proper tune? Is your studio fur¬ 
nished in good taste, and kept as neat as the 
homes of your best pupils Is your musical li¬ 
brary as complete as your competitor’s? Can 
you “lay hand” on what you want when you 
want it? Is your stock of music for the use of 
your pupils kept up, so that you have a large 
selection, or is it composed of a few old rag¬ 
tag pieces that will disgust your pupils? There 
is really no reason for letting a stock go down 
in these days of “on sale” music, when any 
teacher in good standing may have a veritable 
library of the best things “on sale” at the 
expense of very little effort. 


Do you make friends? Do your friends adver¬ 
tise you ? Do you want to know more and more 
people or do you “tortoise” when any new per¬ 
son comes around? Do your friends’ counte¬ 
nances gleam with pleasure when they see you 
approaching? Or do they appear disinterested, 
fearful, or, worse yet, frown and scowl? Are 
you a negative personality or a confident one? 
This is an important asset Put down in per¬ 
centage just what you represent 


Do you turn up your nose at business? Do 
you ignore the need for promptness, square¬ 
ness, accuracy? Many a music teacher has had 
every asset but this one, and has failed. Good 
business traits have helped many fine musicians 
to success—and their absence has ruined many 
finer ones. How do you stand aj a business 
person ? 


How is your enthusiasmT Do you teach 
because you have to or because you really want 
to? Do you go to your work filled with optimis¬ 
tic industry, or does it bore you? Without this 
asset success is inconceivable. Put down your 

Add up the total percentage and divide by six. 
Then do some constructive thinking: 

Why is it that some teachers of music in middle 
life are strong, healthy, vigorous people, and others 
weak, anaemic, flabby, sickly-looking people? Prob¬ 
ably you will say that the same average would hold 
good with the majority of mankind. This, however, 
is not the case. Music teahers habitually permit their 
vitality to be used up in a very wasteful manner. The 
sensible teacher will conserve this vitality. Here are 
some of the leaks that should be stopped. 

Teaching too long and too continuously. 

Losing one’s patience unnecessarily. 

Saving Vitality 

Failing to plan the day’s program so that there is 

Failure to secure sufficient rest. 

Failure to secure sufficient exercise. 

Overuse of the eyes. 

Failure to get rid of worthless, faultfinding, irritable 

Failure to interest oneself in any form of outside 
activity which will serve as a real recreation and help 
keep one’s mental and physical balance. 

Five Ways of Securing Voluntary Practice 

By Alice 

Ask the average mother of the average child what 
tile chief difficulty in music study is and the mother 
will say: “Getting my child to practice.” If the child 
is a boy this is usually said with a grimace of despair. 
A conspiracy upon the part of the mother and the 
teacher can bring about the required amount of prac¬ 
tice and do away with the strain upon the mother’s 

Here are some of the ways to make the pupil want 
to practice. 

I. Avoid above all things a spirit of harsh discipline 
and arbitrary ruling when practice is discussed. Of 
course, you can make your pupil practice, but that is 
not- what you want; you want him to make himself 
practice. Therefore all thoughts associated with music 
should be pleasurable ones 

II. Study the pupil’s day and see that he gets ample 
rime for play and gets that time when it will not inter¬ 
fere with his practice, or leave him so tired and ex¬ 
cited that his practice will be worthless. 

III. Avoid giving music that is too hard and on the 
other hand avoid giving music that is too easy, that 

the pupil s curiosity and work spirit is nullified T 
matter of giving the right piece at the right time 
possibly the teacher’s hardest problem 

IV. Keep a bright goal before the pupil all the til 
and never miss an opportunity to indicate how pra 
tice is bringing your pupil nearer and nearer the go 

V Friendly rivalry is a great inducement to youi 
children. If possible pit some of your pupil’s frien 
against him and keep them running “nip and tucl 
I his makes a game of .the study. If you have tv 
pupils studying from the same book, bring them t 
gether and see how far each one can play without 

To crown it all, the teacher must herself be inte 
esting. She must be vital and show a genuine intere 
in the pupil. She must be enthusiastic and let tl 
pupil know that her appreciation is something to loc 
forward to. She must insist upon regular lesson 
promptness, etc., if she expects regular practice R 
member how you are interested in interesting people- 
keen, lively whole-souled people who are trying to he 
respect ° Ur ' U e PUpil is no differ ^nt from you in th; 


The Dividends From Education 

Many a parent has gone on, year after year, paying 
out money for the musical education of a girl largely 
with the idea of making that girl a more accomplished 
and more desirable member of the social structure 
How often has it happened that the money spent has 
brought dividends never even imagined. A good musi¬ 
cal education is a protection against reverses that 
so often come when they are least expected. 

Education is always 'a good investment. Our vord 
to music students is to fight for all the musical in¬ 
struction of an appropriate character you can possibly 
get. Sacrifice the present for the future, if you would 
know the real secret of accumulative success. In 
music, as in general education, the educated person is 
the one who usually reaps the major rewards. 

President A. W. Van Hoose, of Shorter College, Ga, 
gives the following facts relating to the worthwhile¬ 
ness of education, and they are proportionately ap¬ 
plicable to musical education in the sense that the more 
musical education one has, the better it is for that 

I. Education Increases Productive Power. 

Proof: Massachusetts gives her citizens 7 years of 

schooling. The United States gives its citizens 
4.4 years of schooling. Tennessee gives its citi¬ 
zens 3 years of schooling. 

Results : Massachusetts citizens produce an average 
of $260 per capita per year. 

Citizens of the United States produce an average 
of $170 per year per capita. 

Citizeqs of Tennessee produce an average of $116 
per year per capita. 

II. Education Helps Men to Perform Distinguished 


Proof : With no schooling: 

Of five million men only 31 attained distinction. 
With elementary schooling: 

Of thirty-three million 808 attained distinction. 
With high school education: 

Of two million 1,245 attained distinction. 

With college education: 

Of one million 5,768 attained distinction. 
Conclusion : The child with no schooling has one 
chance in 150,000 of rendering distinguished 

The child with elementary education has four times 
this chance. 

The child with high school education has eighty-seven 
times this chance. 

The young man or woman with college education has 
eight hundred times this chance. 

Will you, High School Graduate, multiply your pres¬ 
ent efficiency nearly ten times by getting for yourself 
the very best college education possible? Decide at 
once that you will. 

III. Education and Statesmanship. 

Fact A Fess ' han , one Per cent, of Americans are 
College Graduates, but this one per cent has 

S6 per cem 
62 per cent 

t earn an average of 1500 
n $ 20 , 000 . 

n average of fifioo per 
n $ 40 , 600 . 

% til 

t H e Secretaries of State. 

63 her amt It 4 tt J >rn ev»-Ocncral. 

TV p, ^ ' JUdae * 01 the Supreme Court. 

IV. Every Day Spent in School Pays the Child 
Nine Dollars. 

Every day spent in college pays the young man or 
woman fifty-five dollars, fifty-four cents 
Proof: Illiterate laborers ellan averaoe 
per year . 

In forty years they would e Ull 
High school graduates earn a 

In forty years they would e, 

College graduates earn an average of $spoo fieryetr. 
In forty years they would earn $80,000. 

izi e °* s hV’t r 

But look a little further: 

gradual ‘in am ,°? nt earncd hy hi S h s'*™' 

graduate in an active life of forty years is $40 000 

that he reaS ,°, n ° f the four or 720 days, 

. spentin college, the college year being 180 

have $55*55' Ih WC Wi " di l' de S 40 ’ 000 hy 72 °- " e 



SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 579 

An Impassioned movement in the style of an improvisation; To be played with large full tone. Grade IV. LILY STRICKLAND 

Andante espressivo m.m.J = 7£- 

Copyright 1918 by Theo. Presser Co. 

British Copyright secured 




A Minuet in the Manner of Old Time 

A Minuet in the classic manner,dignified and well-written.Grade IIlH FELIX E- SCHELLING 

British Copyright secured 



Page 581 


An easy classic of exceptional merit. Mozart’s charming song The Violet arranged ns a piano solo. Grade III. 

Allegretto m.m. J = 72 
8 ~ 

precise Un 

fr H , ]) *Cr*\ ^ 

poco pin meno 
sp 1 

l' 4 3 \ 

n ,f ■ ■ ■ p rm „,f 

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T y 

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10 5 


Page 582 SEPTEMBER 1918 



A brilliant duet number, full of dash and go. Play as fast as possible, consistent 


Allegro mo derat o 



SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 588 


Allegro moderato 






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Copyright MDCCCXCVII by E.Witzmann&Co. 
Copyright transferred 1917 to Theo.Presser Co. 


the etude 


)t> 1 f-f.-f-j 

,--f t M 






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LJr 1 j-’"~ 



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Page 585 


Page 586 SEPTEMBER 1918 


A modern song song without words of real musical value Requiring the utmost e’ 3 _— 

Allegro grazioso M.M.J = 68 

Copyright 1918 by Theo.Presser Co. 

British Copyright** 



tgs 588 SEPTEMBER M8 


BROLLOPS' MARSCH since the disu8 e of some of the more conventional 

One of the quaintest and most characteristic of ail wedding marches, now ooming into a g 
marches. Grade IV. 2 

Allegro e leggiero m.i 


J X W r. ^ ^ n 

'^| T f T ft rfp 

3- ♦ 


. At 


0 1 3 K k 

> 1 

■p-# m 









-?--* —P— 


4 SSS 

SEPTEMBER 1918 Pago 585 


O jypg 



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01 if 

/ ^ ■— 

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f f _ 

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v[ ^ t j—- -(^= 



> 1 

■i - J • 

GAVOTTE c -w .,cluck 

from “IPHIGENIA IN AULIS” Arr. by Gabriel Morel 


Page 590 SEPTEMBER MS * m MD1 

ARABESQUE m.mos2kow SKi 

uire rare finish and refinement of expression. Grade V. 

From CiuqJWts Morceaux, Op.95, Moszkowski’s most recent work. This number will req 

Allegretto grazioso t 

Tempo I 

SEPTEMBER 1918 Rage 591 

From the set known as Birthday Jewels. Grade II. 




Q 8 


^ i 3 _pg i 3^-— 

1 2 

i» rj, 

i / 

If you’re 

wise, ver-y wise you will Jsoon re-a-lize that a 

Sapphire is the stone that you should 

« 1 1 l 

T 1-1 n - ! ^ r 


fj "T - 

5 4 i~5^ 


4 2*-- 

° 8 



t 2 

wear both night and morn,they bring 


luck,brains,and wealth, al - so 


n-creasedheaIth.This ap - 

f tfg f -■- 

plies to on - lythoseSep4em-ber 


2 3 » 

6 5 

British Copyright secured 

Page 592 




A characteristic march movement, fascinating and in rhythmic swing. WALLACE A JOHNSON 

British Copyright secured 

THE etude 


Page 593 



An attractive left hand melody, with good contrasting second theme, Grade II. 

Andante con moto m.m.J.= 54 


(Jfr 'p=f= 


3 B~ 

1 3 I 


- -5 

1 l. 

5 --. 


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til: — 

cresc. —== 


Var. II 

f § 


Hare! a 

. . . :> 



Its ** ii it n tt tt tt t< tt ttkk k 

r r rf^ r r r r r r rn-r r44-fT f r~A PT.r fT 1 

I -• LJ 1 M LI 1 hi 1 i i ii-i I ill 1 i i | -i . i--U- i I. .. -I— lj i | | i i i 1 — 

British Copyright secured 




A dainty little reverie,% ood.for study or recital. Grade II. 

Andante m.m.J=108 

Page 596 



Mauve:y m. watts 

A charming little nature song. 

Con espressione 



william Moore 

0 I • rit. fTs r # 

splash of warm ma-roons seen be-fore the night’s be-gun.Thoughthe air is bleak and < 

nei - ler of earth’sc-lnomsybii nn-^nn-f|iipreH spnrf; ji.lone-Tbmi<rhthe air is bleak and < 

cold You are laugh-ing Mar i- gold,Though the 
cold You are hap - py Mar-i-gold,Though the 

^ / J " r. 

: * 

r iif p =p= 

r r 

f f . g L p = 

i.^ c. r ■■•■■% = ± = = 

r r r * ^ 

^ . r 


THE etube_ 

SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 597 

Yourspir-it comeg to cheer me, To ease my ach - ing heart. 


SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 599 

A tasteful,and well-harmonized study or recital piece. WILLIAM E. HAESCHE 


The Human Side of Johann Sebastian Bach 

AN eminent virtuoso recently declared 
to me that he should be more or less un¬ 
comfortable in dining alone with Beet¬ 
hoven “but with bather Bach, how 
different! With him I see myself per¬ 
fectly at home, pipe in mouth, elbows 
upon the table, chatting informally about 

thousand and one interesting things, 
an d over a big stein of beer, as in the 
good old days” How true! 

Bach was a good citizen, an admirable 
father, as M. Prudhomme would say, a 
devoted friend; socially affable, and pos¬ 
sessed of a rare artistic modesty. Were 
he asked how he had attained such 
heights he would answer: “I was obliged 
to work; whoever will strive as I did 
^11 succeed as well.” He availed him¬ 
self of every opportunity to become 
familiar with the works of other com¬ 
posers; Handel he esteemed highly, 
Couperin interested him; when accorded 
three weeks’ leave that he might hear 
Buxtehude, Bach so far forgot himself 
as to allow three months to go by while 
listening, from a secluded corner of the 
church, to the justly celebrated organist 
of St. Mary’s in Lubeck. 

Bach was a great and good man; never 
did a more marvelous mechanism per¬ 
form the functions of a human brain; 
never has been known a mind that was 
sounder, better balanced, contained in 
a more robust body; never were a mu¬ 
sician’s nerves better controlled. It re¬ 
quired the atrocious harmonizations of 
Gorner to cause Bach one day to turn 
upon him and hurl his wig at the face of 
the poor accompanist: “Sie sind ein 
Schuster” (You are a bungler) ! These 
fits of anger were, however, rare, despite 
the astonishing vitality of his constitu¬ 
tion, for Bach was naturally patient and 
kind hearted. 

Note him with his pupils: during the 
first year nothing but exercises — trills, 
scales, passages in thirds and sixths, 
practice in changing fingers — work of 
every description to insure the equability 
of the hand. He supervised everything, 
devoting the minutest attention to the 
clearness and precision of the touch. * * * 

Bach played the clavecin in the fol¬ 
lowing manner: “The five fingers so 

curved that their tips fell perpendicularly 
upon the keys, over which they formed 
a parallel line, ever ryady to obey. The 
finger was. not 'raised vertically upon 
leaving the key, but was drawn back, 
almost gliding toward the palm of the 
hand; in the passage from one key to 
another this sliding motion seemed to 
impart to the succeeding finger exactly 
the same degree of pressure, thereby en¬ 
suring perfect equality; a touch neither 
‘heavy,’ nor yet dry.” This we learn from 
Philipp Emanuel. 

Bach’s hand was comparatively small; 
the movement of his fingers was hardly 
perceptible, extending only to the first 
joints. His hand' preserved its rounded 
shape even in the most difficult passages, 
Forkel tells us; the fingers were raised 
very little above the keyboard, hardly 
more than in a tfill; as soon as a finger 
was no longer needed he took pains to 
replace it in its normal position. . . . 

“The other parts of his body took no 
part in the performance, contrary to the 
habit of many people whose hands are 
incapable of sufficient agility.” 

To-day we no longer play the harpsi¬ 
chord, and the pianoforte, which has 
happily replaced it, makes demands never 
dreamed of in those days. 

As to the character of organ touch, no 
change has taken place in two centuries. 
Possibly at the time of Bach the keys of 
the pedals were slightly different from 
those of our day) undoubtedly in his 
youth he made much less use of the heel 
than of the toe, since the pedal keys were 
extremely short. But he soon recognized 
the necessity of perfecting the bass key¬ 
board of the organ, both by extending 
its compass and by lengthening the pedal- 
keys to their present dimensions. 

He played with the body inclined 
slightly forward, and motionless; with an 
admirable sense of rhythm, with an abso¬ 
lutely perfect polyphonic ensemble, with 
extraordinary clearness, avoiding ex¬ 
tremely rapid tempi; in short, master of 
himself, and, so to speak, of the beat, 
producing an effect of incomparable 
grandeur.— From the Preface by C. M. 
IVidor to "Johann Sebastion Bach” by 
A. Pirro. 

Putting the “Like” Into “Learn” 

By W. F. Gates 

Is the purpose of music study to “learn” 
music or to “like” music ? 

This simple little question, put in home¬ 
ly fashion, is at the basis of musical ped¬ 

Many can learn, but few can like. 

In other words, a certain amount of 
the theory and technic of music is learn- 
able by anyone; but to acquire the degree 
of appreciation for the music as an art 
which is simplified into the word “like,” 
is given to a smaller and more select 
■ number. 

“What are you studying in school 
now?” I asked a boy. 

“Aw, some stuff by Shakespeare,” was 
the reply. 

“Do you like it?” 

“Don’t have to like it; only have to 
learn it," was the disgusted reply. 

And that represents the attitude of a 
good many music students. They are 
given Clementi, Haydn, Beethoven, Schu¬ 
mann, and with a certain persistence, sup¬ 
plied by themselves, their teachers or 
their parents, they stumble through the 
assigned work. 

When the “like” is left out, what might 
be a pleasure is but drudgery. It is music 
w ‘tb the music left out. There is a sort 
of “kill or cure” method that too often 

results in the former. It makes potential 
assassins of the pupils. 

Under the old fashioned method of 
medical treatment, often the patient 
proved his right to live by surviving the 
doses administered. There is more than 
a hint of that in some of the music teach¬ 

But as the most modern of medical 
practice is devoted to saving the weak, 
rather than the strong, so the modern 
musical pedagogy aims to create as many 
musical intelligences as possible, by nour¬ 
ishing the germ with “liking.” 

Too heroic a dose of classics may kill 
the budding musical interest of the pupil; 
just as Shakespeare or Gibbon or Macau¬ 
lay may be too strong for the weak liter¬ 
ary digestion. Consequently, the teacher 
should choose music for the pupil, not in 
accord with the teacher’s taste or digestive 
powers, but in accordance with the pupil’s. 

It is better to “like”77ie Suwanee River 
than to dislike a Beethoven Sonata. It 
is better to like Hearts and Flowers than 
to lose all musical interest by too much 
Clementi and Cramer. One may not step 
into the second story of a house from 
the ground; but one may easily climb the 
steps to it. 

SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 601 





This is the only book of its kind which introduces note values, time and 
rhythm in. connection with the spelling of words upon the staff. 

The names of the lines and spaces are most readily fixed in the mind by word spell¬ 
ing and the interest of the young student is immediately aroused and the imagina¬ 
tion stimulated. 

By the judicious, gradual introduction of note values and time combinations elemen¬ 
tary notation is covered completely and thoroughly in a manner most agreeable 

o the student. 

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Harmony Book for Beginners 

Price $1.00 

Brief, Simple, Vital, Practical, New and Distinctive 

Lays a strong foundation for future musicianship by giving the main 
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it will prove invaluable in the class or for self-help work. 

Read this letter from JOHN PHILIP SOUSA, Famous Composer and Conductor: 

The system adopted in your Harmony Book is admirably adapted for the 
student who requires an instruction book that is “ as plain as a pike.” The text 
is so lucid that he “who runs may read”—a decided virtue in any text book. 
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Page ■ 602 SEPTEMBER 1918 


Department for Voice and Vocal Teachers 

Edited for September by , c „ ARD WAGNE , 

‘The Human Voice is Really the Foundation ] 

Possibilities in 

the Study of the Vocal Works of Johann Sebastian Bach 

It is a curious and remarkable coinci¬ 
dence that the composers who wrote the 
two greatest works extant for chorus and 
orchestra, should both have been born 
in the same year 1685. Whether The 
Messiah of Handel, or The Mass in B 
minor of Bach, is the greater work must 
remain a matter of taste. 

The Messiah is simple in construction, 
Ynelodious, easily comprehended by the 
mass of people, and very little use of any 
but the simplest chords, triads, and 
chords of the seventh. On the contrary 
the Mass in B minor, is exceedingly in¬ 
volved in structure, and difficult to under¬ 
stand at a first hearing. Almost every 
known dissonance appears in it Pass¬ 
ing notes before two or three notes of 
the chord at the tame time, and devices 
of modulation unknown before Bach 
used them, awaken surprise and delight 
even to-day, and make the work sound 
modern to ears accustomed to Strauss, 
Debussy and Ravel. 

Modern Scores 

It may be that the scores of modern 
choral composers, with their richer or¬ 
chestration, and opulent use of the brass 
and percussion instruments, their Dream 
of Gerontius, or their Symphony of a 
Thousand, may make more noise than 
these two old masters. Not one of them 
has succeeded in producing a work that 
compares in majesty of conception, in 
clearness of design, in inspiration, in 
strength, in architectural beauty, with 
The Messiah, or the Mass in B minor. 

Ever since they were written the choral 
works of Handel have had repeated per¬ 
formances all over the civilized world. 
At no period have they fallen into 
desuetude. About their performance, 
especially about the. manner of singing 
the solo parts, have grown up certain 
traditions. The ambitious student who 
wishes to sing them, need not grope in 
the dark for a conception of his own. 

Several editions are published, edited 
by artists and conductors of experience, 
which show in detail just how these 
works have been sung through the two 
hundred years since they were composed. 

By Nicholas Douty 

After Bach’s death, in 1750, his choral 
music lay forgotten for almost one hun¬ 
dred years, until revived by Mendelssohn 
and Cornelius in 1829. There can, there¬ 
fore be no authorative traditions about 
the singing of his music. In order to 
sing the music of Bach then we must go 
to his scores directly, and study them in 
the light of our knowledge of the music 
of his time and period. 

We find in almost all of them a very 
free use of that device called recitative; 
both recitative secco (accompanied only 
by a few detached chords on the harp- 
ischord or organ) and recitative stro- 
mentato (accompanied by instrumental 
figures in the orchestra). The first form 
of recitative must be declaimed rather 
than sung, with a very clear enunciation 
and the greatest freedom and expressive¬ 
ness. There must be no sliding, no 
portamento. While the pitch of the notes 
must be observed, their relative time val¬ 
ues must need be regarded only as sug¬ 
gestive Contrary to the general opinion, 
there is nothing cryptic, nothing myster¬ 
ious about the recitatives of Bach, ex¬ 
cept for the facts that they are musically 
very difficult, and that in them the voice 
is used through its entire range and that 
they are very expressive and beautiful, 
they differ little from the recitatives of 
any other great composer Bach was not 
a pedant, but a realist, who did not hesi¬ 
tate to introduce into his music imitations 
of natural sounds. Thus we have in the 
Matthew Passion the sound of a crowing 
cock; in the Christmas Overture, the 
rocking of the cradle which contains the 
infant Jesus; in the John Passion the bit¬ 
ter pangs of Peter’s weeping, in the 
Sanctus from the Mass, the waving sound 
of the wings of angels as they sing be¬ 
fore the throne of God. The emotional 
effect of this music is overwhelming, and 
the man who sings Bach’s recitatives in 
a dry, cold, emasculated manner, misses 
their meaning entirely. 

The Narrator 

The Apostles Matthew and John (rep¬ 
resented by the Narrator in the Passions) 
were men of fire and force, the friends 
and followers of Jesus. They were 
neither dictionaires nor scholars. They 
accepted wholly the new teaching of 
Christ, following Him in life and preach¬ 
ing His word after His crucifixion and 

The singer who undertakes the part of 
the Narrator must sing with force yet 
without bluster, with inspiration yet 
without sentimentality, with dramatic 
intensity yet without theatricism. Always 
must he be a figure of dignity; always 
must he speak with that authority which 
suggests his close personal association 
with his Master and Saviour. 

And what advice can we offer to the 
intrepid singer who attempts to reincar¬ 
nate for us the divine personality of 

Jesus Christ. His voice must be nob e 

without pomposity, strong but never 
harsh, tender without weakness, firm >et 
never obstinate. 

Never must his tone be ugly; not for 
a moment dare it lose its fulness, its 
richness, its sense.of perfect, almost su¬ 
perhuman control. Such a task is more 
than enough for any singer. If he ful¬ 
fill it adequately he is worthy indeed to 
be called a great artist. 

Sir George Grove’s Dictionary points 
out to us the old tradition of the recita¬ 
tive. “In phrases ending with two or 
more reiterated notes, it has been long 
the custom to sing the first as an appog- 
giatura, a note higher than the rest. 

If this suggestion be followed that di¬ 
versity of opinion which often mars a 
Bach performance may easily be avoided. 

Gath-ered all to-pclh-ei 

Gath-ered all to-geth-er 

mentato as Bach writes it. is so inexl 
cably mixed with the accompanying I 
ures in the orchestra, that the wh 
takes on almost the character of an a 
The beauty of the singer’s voice 
here the great fact of supreme imp 
tance. He must sing as the Italians si 
upon the pure vowel sound, in the str 
est time and with the best of rhytl 
The old tradition of the appoggiatura r 
also be observed in Bach’s accompar 

recitative, but always with cart and ^ 

The arias make the most Irenes 
demands upon the singer. Seldom do 
they lie comfortably for the voice, as a, 
the arias of Handel and Mozart. Tiilk 
roulades, scales, appalling jumps, 
of impossible length, alternate with meas' 
ures which demand the smoothest oiM 

The singer who undertakes them mast 
have a reliable technique, a good breath 
control, a free, clear enunciation, and 
must he a good musician. 

An obligato for violin, flute, oboe, or 
horn, is an integral part of many oi the 
arias. A perfect balance of tow and 
tempo is indispensable here, and an una¬ 
nimity of conception. Yet each mustgive 
a little to the other, or the result vrlbea 
studied stiffness, a pedantic monotony, 
wearisome alike to the performers and to 
the audience. 

No Traditions from Bach's Time 
Although there are no traditions reach¬ 
ing back to Bach's time, no disiinci in¬ 
dividual Bach style, the singer need hast 
neither hesitation nor fear in singing the 
works of this great classic master. His 
life, and his works and the works of his 
contemporaries give us the clearest ligh 
upon their interpretation. Like Haute 
or Mozart (or even like Verdi or Mas- 
senet) his music must he sun? with tk 
greatest beauty of tone, with the as- 
cercst. most heartfelt expression, asdthf 
fullest musicianship. 

But the singer should never aBorfhts- 
self to l>e lead away by his feehugs a 
the shallow sensationalism or that over¬ 
sexed emotionalism which are so pm- 
lent nowadays, and which modem sags 
and operas seem to demand 

The spirit of the music is the w* 1 *' 
portant thing to be considered, and # * 
bigger than the singers, the coeds®' 
and the orchestra. If it be studied®; 
gently and seriously with lastm? 
prayer, and if it I* regarded as 
full-t>loodc<l human music there u 
earthly reason why Bach may *“ 
sung by any well-trained singer. 
ducted by any adequately N 0 ?' 

Why are young singers T r 
nowadays with diagrams of ,hrr ' . 
apparatus, and with consiani 
the parts therein which they 0/1 * . 
control than the action of A*. _ 

kidneys? The great singers oi ^ ; 
times were never taught by £ 
scientific plates: ^ tr} # 
voice was mystery and oral 
yet people seem to hav * 
fully —R. L. Hemsax. in 
for Singers. 


SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 608 

Evan Williams 

In the best sense, Evan Williams was a 
popular singer. His art appealed not only 
io the musician and the man of education 
and discernment, but to the great mass 
of the people as well. 

It was not alone his voice which 
charmed them, though that was full, 
strong and manly, and capable of infinite 
gradations of force and of color. It was 
also his warm Celtic temperament and a 
very just sense of the beauty and value 
of the words he sang. Often he reached 
the heights of true poetry; always he 
declaimed with vigor and dramatic feel¬ 

ing. Evan Williams sang as the minstrels 
of old must have sung: simply, fervently; 
honestly, each song bearing to his audi¬ 
ence the perfume of his own personality. 
With truth it might have been said of 
him that he left “A little of himself in 
each place and in every hour.” 

Williams was not a great musician, but 
he was a great singer. He had the rare 
gift of translating emotion into song, a 
real touch of the “Feu sacre” which the 
high gods keep so jealously to themselves 
and give so sparingly to the children of 

Tone Color 

A voice has its most beautiful, most 
characteristic timbre when all the various 
parts which are concerned in its emission 
act in harmony and with the least possi¬ 
ble friction. There is no more a panacea 
which cures all vocal ills than there is a 
universal remedy for all our human aches 
and pains. The resonance of the cavities 
of the chest, mouth and nose, our most 
modern fad; the correct use of the 
breath, our ancient and dishonorable 
enemy; freedom of tongue and throat, so 
difficult for any but an Italian to obtain; 
psychic control, an old Greek formula 
revised to meet the needs of another time 
and nation—all these are but parts whose 
co-relation makes the perfect whole. 

There must be no friction, I repeat 
(for friction wears out machines and 
voices alike), but neither must there be 
flabbiness and weakness. Strength of all 
the vocal and bodily parts is necessary, 
for, after all, singing is largely a muscu¬ 
lar exercise. But strength should never 
be confounded with brute force; convuls¬ 
ive effort which tears and breaks but 
never produces beauty. The hand of iron 
must be well concealed in its glove of 
velvet. And the soul of the man, that 
hidden influence that sometimes flashes 
from his eyes, or emerges in winged 
words from his mouth, must be, in 
supreme control, to make of his singing 
that thing of beauty which is a joy 

Distinct Enunciation 

One of the most common complaints 
brought against our American singers, 
and one which is, unfortunately, too 
often justified, is that they are careless 
in their enunciation. Time after time 
you hear singers who have good voices 
and sing well, as far as tone production 
is concerned, but who enunciate their 
words in such slovenly fashion that the 
audience cannot understand the story 
they are supposed to be telling. There 
have been cases where it was impossible 
to catch the words plainly enough to be 
sure in what language they were singing. 

There are a variety of reasons why 
this condition has arisen, but to a consid¬ 
erable extent it is technical, and due to 
insufficient training in the studio. The 
young student has so much vocal technic 
to master, so many absorbing problems 
of voice placing, breathing and tone qual¬ 
ity to think about that he never seems to 
find the time for serious attention to his 
enunciation. This appears to him to be 
one of the things that can wait for the 

As a matter of fact distinct enuncia¬ 
tion is one of the most difficult of all 
the problems of the singer. The great¬ 
est artists always have to pay close atten¬ 
tion to the words in order to be sure that 
they will reach the hearers in understand¬ 
able fashion, yet, the young singers take it 
all pretty much as a matter of course. 
The main difficulty is that the young 
singer, since he knows perfectly well 
what he is saying, takes it for granted 
that the audience will understand equally 
well, which, alas, does not follow at all. 

Distinct enunciation is partly the result 
of the understanding of certain technical 
laws of the formation of the vowels and 
the consonants, but more important still 
is the psychic law of the telling of the 
story. Some singers pronounce the vow- 
ols clearly and with good tone and bring 
out the consonants with vigorous empha¬ 
sis and yet you find it difficult tounderstand 
them. The enunciation sounds labored. 

and while you can hear the separate con¬ 
sonants plainly enough, sometimes too 
plainly, you cannot catch the word eas¬ 
ily. Then there are others who do not 
appear to work hard to send out the con¬ 
sonants, the S does not hiss nor the T 
hit your ear with a little shock, yet you 
understand what the singer is saying. 

“ Telling the Story ” 

Clear enunciation depends primarily on 
the instinct for telling the story. The 
singer’s voice may be well placed, the 
tone focused forward where the organs 
of enunciation, the tongue, the lips and 
the teeth can mold it easily into words 
and yet, with all the conditions favorable, 
you may not be able to understand what 
the singer is saying. Another may not 
have s.o good a voice, and may not use 
it as well yet will tell you the story in a 
Vnanner that makes it understandable. 

Enunciation must project itself. The 
singer must intend to tell the story to 
some imaginary listener sitting a little 
distance away, and must put his mind on 
saying the words so clearly that the 
meaning will carry. But over and over 
again the student is thinking so much 
about the tone placement, or the tone 
quality, that he forgets all about the 
words. Every student is keenly alive to 
the necessity of vocal technic and it is 
difficult to make him appreciate the need 
for distinct enunciation. 

This is one department of singing 
which can easily be put to a convincing 
test merely by inviting a visitor to lis¬ 
ten to a song. Then, if he is asked how 
well he understood the words, the situa¬ 
tion is often quite embarrassing for the 
singer. Much to the singer’s surprise he 
finds that he did not make the story 
clear at all and he also discovers when 
he tries to pronounce the words so dis¬ 
tinctly that there shall be no mistake 
about the matter that it is by no means 
as simple to do as he thought. 


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Page 60SEPTEMBER 1918 


Style F 


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Arranging and Correction of Mss. 


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One encouraging sign is that the de¬ 
mand is growing stronger on the part 
of the audiences for the singing of songs 
in English, and there certainly would be 
small sense in singing in English if the 
people could not understand it. In times 
gone by when pretty much everything 
was sung in some foreign tongue the stu- 

language and hardly thought it worth 
while, to take much pains either to pro¬ 
nounce it correctly of to enunciate it dis¬ 
tinctly, but this unfortunate condition is, 

to realize that they must speak their 

word, in 

greater majority do not yet 

how serious * tal *JJ” understand the 

They must be made iation and of 

importance of good pro u Then 

clear enunciation as the h V 

TSSF'S b.»”-5 

good tneir to ta ke pains and 

placed, they f ect ; ng their abil- 

spendm ^ story in understandable 
t W Tt is one of the most difficult 
fashion. training, but the first 

problems in voice .r, b, the 

One reason why so many pupils fail is 
that they study without thought, without 
concentration. With them, study is simply — . f> 

tone or exercise practice. The pupil make a singer, 
should say to himself, “Why should I do 
a certain exercise? 1 Why do I study a 
certain thing? What is the obj'ecf? What 
will it lead to? How should I do it?” 

If the pupil does not understand all of 
these things, he should ask questions of 
the teacher and the teacher must answer 
them intelligently or stultify himself. If 
the system is right the student should 
constantly remember that the way of 
doing at the start is a thousand times 
more important than the tone, for .when 
the way is right the tone is sure to come 
right, sooner or later. 

A lady who had more money than c her 
things necessary for a singer once said to 
me, “I don’t care what it costs to learn to 
sing, but I don’t want to have to think 


so much all the time.” I replied. Well 
then, madam, you wdl have to look for 
another teacher. Money alone wdl not 

The pupil, and especially the singer, 
must learn to think, feel, see and hear 
tone. Alas for the average pupil! Ninety 
per cent, of all instruction goes in one 
ear and out the other! The teacher is 
compelled to tell and teach over and over 
again the same thing. Lack of concen¬ 
tration on the part of the pupil. Students 
who study in this way, even when the 
teacher succeeds in making them do a 
little something, don’t stay taught; they 
have no foundation and they soon lose 
everything. Be sure you are right, at 
tlfe start, then follow closely the instruc¬ 
tion until right habits are formed. If 
the system is right you are then sure to 
succeed. If not,—well, that is another 
story— E. J. Myer. 

Are You Thinking of Having Your Little Boy or Girl Begin 
the Serious Study of Singing? 

By Ralph M. Brown 

Small children should be urged to sing 
very softly. 

The voices of small girls or boys are in 
proportion to their tender bodies and very 
different in volume from the strident and 
forced tone they are often encouraged 
to produce. This is much better under¬ 
stood than it was twenty years ago, hut 
too often serious study is contemplated 
and often carried into effect where the 
child’s voice is like its body—undeveloped. 

There is considerable room for argu¬ 
ment regarding the value of the experi¬ 
ence gained by boys in singing in Epis¬ 
copal and Catholic choirs. 

This does not refer to those where the 
boys are permitted to scream, but where 
the director has experience and knowledge 
and the boys’ best interests at heart. It 
has been found too often that where the 
boyish voice has been unduly cultivated, 
though along perfectly correct lines, that 
at the age of mutation the change did not 
occur with the freedom and subsequent 
volume that might be expected from such 
an unusual child’s voice. 

A boy’s voice is at its best only about 
five years, while a man can safely count 
on twenty. The greatest compliment that 
can be paid the child’s voice is to say 
that it sounds mature. This in itself 
should show (whether the voice has been 
taught correctly or not) that it is abnor¬ 
mal and too- much like asking the tender 
bodies to assume the duties of grown men 
and women. 

Argue as we may regarding the fore¬ 

going, there can be no doubt that no 
boy’s voice was ever injured by waiting 
until he was 18 or 19 before beginning 
his serious study, and the late Matilda 
Marchesi, teacher of many of the great¬ 
est women singers of the last generation, 
has said that a girl should be 18. This 
will be found to be largely a matter of 
physical development, but it would cer¬ 
tainly be unwise to permit a miss of less 
than 16-to practice with the same serious¬ 
ness as a women of 20. 

This seeming delay does not retard the 
final development of the vocal organs, but 
permits their quick and permanent grasp 
and control of the proper exercises, and 
a gain of strength usually very satis¬ 
factory to all. The learning of the cor¬ 
rect use of the voice where there has 
been no incorrect teaching or singing to 
overcome should be only a matter of a 
few months. Its artistic use in song 
interpretation is on the contrary a life¬ 
long study. 

talent m early years, together with a got 
voice, had best be allowed the opportuni 
of such musical training as he will r 
ceive in connection with the study , 
the piano, violin or other instrument fi 
a few years, rather than overtax tl 
powers of his immature vocal orgar 
Ihe more ° f general musical training 1 

H m ui Casler and niore ^tisfacto 

will be his progress in vocal music, wh« 
stody. r ° Per time arriVeS f ° r its serio 

It is insane folly to try to sing impor¬ 
tant roles on the stage after one or two 
years of study; it may perhaps be endured 
for one or two years without evi] results, 
hut it can never be carried on indefinitely. 
—Lilli Lehmann. 

nnnd as to obscure the fact tha 
song. Recitation is to be 
shouted, cackled or barked —V 


THE etude 

Why Be Thin and Frail? 

. 1 

Face Powder 

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Keeps the Complen* 

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it «««!«!, pl«1«i»*J ; 
it pore tnd harwren- » 
red o«. Prewitt ret boo* 

oratioau. A in mica Wf 
tola*. Poraltf tt** 


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SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 605 

^En joy Your Phonographs 

f Use the Ellis Melodious Reproducer It takes 

Musical Questions Answered 

Use the Ellis M 
away all the "sere 
full harmonies of 
Reproduces true t 

ralue of every note. Makes 
■ou’ll get great enjoyment 
r all disc machines. Write 

P. O. Box 882 Milwau 

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!., not likely to be of Interest 

Learn Harmony and Composition 

SeilS S^oeat iSsplV ISmSS.' Three Trl.l'lsn 

7 X r/r “55 Sr, 

schools open. In maty parts of the country, ®° “ *' ° PteCB * ere n ° 

however, it begins much earlier,—in tbe 
■Southwest many teachers begin In August. 

Much depends upon tbe climate. In some so- 
called "wealthy'’ districts tbe students do 
not begin until November first and end their 
lessons about tbe middle of May. Is there 
any wonder why the children of the so-called 
poorer districts, who study during the sum¬ 
mer, almost invariably outstrip the wealthy 
students, despite their many advantages? It 
" great mistake to postpone the opening of 

<?. In this measure from “The Chariot 
Pace,” bn L. Bchytte, do the sharps before 
the G and .1 octaves in the right hand affect 
the G and A on the other staff in the left 
hand f—8. I. 

A. In general, an accidental occurring tn 
one stall cannot affect notes in another. In 
this particular case there Is a still stronger 
reason—the GS comes after the (5, and the 
A# after the A : how then could they affect 
notes that had already been played and were 
through with? An effect cannot go before 

O. Hole can one tell what key a piece is 
written inf —Ignorant. 

A. In general the lowest note of the last 
chord 111 the bass at the end of the piece will 
give vou the name of the key—that is, it will 
tell vou whether it is G or D or A flat or F 
sharp, etc. It will not, however, tell you 
whether it is major or minor, and there is the 
*— ■' -■- ---unless you 

cales. 1 

l find t 

i inst 


ing the exact educational material 
desired without first writing our 
Service Department. 

THE0. PRESSER CO., Philada., Pa. 

_ __ instance, G, and the stgnatui 

is one sharp, you know that the piece is in 
G major, but If tbe signature is two flats 
you know that the piece is in G minor. 

We cannot omit this opportunity to^ com¬ 
parator*)' work. There are apparently thou¬ 
sands of people who would enjoy their music 
Infinitely more if they knew just a little 
more. No one can be considered to have 
passed the first steps in music who has not 
become acquainted with all tbe keys. These 
need not necessarily be learned through the 
scales but the scales form the best kind of 
drill in such matters. If “Ignorant" were to 
give just one month in studying the keys and 
scales, the whole field of music would expand 

. r arbitrary 

le student may learn 

__ ..ot fingered he would 

know just what fingers to uset —Sister of 

A. It Is only within comparatively recent 
years that the detailed fingering has been 
printed in nearly all good editions. In for¬ 
mer years the editions frequently appeared 
with very few indications of the fingering. 
The teacher then carefully and laboriously 
went over the work and inserted the finger¬ 
ing. In direct answer to your question we 
can say that while there are a few general 
rules, they are continually liable to change 
owing to the introduction of other conditions. 
These rules are based upon the most con¬ 
venient and expedient means of making the 
hand conform to the shape of the pianoforte 
keys. In general the first rules for fingering 
which the student should learn are those 
which apply to the scales. These have been 
carefully worked out and the student will 
find that tn almost any piece in any key 
there are certain scale passages of from 
three to thirty notes in length, as the case 
may be. If the pupil is acquainted with the 
scale of that particular key he has already 
drilled himself in the fingering of that pas¬ 
sage — It comes as second nature — he does 
not have to think about it. This Is also true 
of tbe lingering of the arpeggios In the vari¬ 
ous keys—and when one says arpeggios one 
also says chords. After one has studied arpeg¬ 
gios and chords there remain octaves and spe¬ 
cial arbitrary exercises. The main principles, 
however, are taken in and mastered along 
the line of three main channels, scales, ar¬ 
peggios and octaves. The pupil thus learns 
that in some chords the third finger is pref¬ 
erable to the fourth — that in many octave 
passages the fourth finger may be used to 
far greater advantage on the black keys, that 
it Is rarely expedient to use the thumb on 
a black key In any scale passage, and so on. 
Indeed this knowledge, quite as much as the 
exercise of the fingers, is the thing which 
makes scale, arpeggios and octave study 
so valuable. The skilled pianist who is 

a good sight reader -1 tjmm k —■* 

fingering in a piece — 

Milkweed CtSam 

st- n 

theiapeutic, it 

_he reads. His fingers 

L„ ,,,r.i places intuitively just as 

horses rush from a sound sleep under 
shafts of the engine at the sound of a 
r. This is the reason why experienced 
often smile when some system pro- 
do away with technical exercises 

Powder,'andP&fumeTn Quest Boom Stz«. 


Q. Has the size of 

Wnrt to .* 

Vocalist. , A J , 

A. Certainly,—since the Adam 
simply the colloquial nai 

Adam’s apple any- 

S t0 c 

fs proposed. 

the beauty of the voice !— 
the 'larynx unquestionably has 

....Jll-V large larynges. Some such people 
develop good voices, others do not. Conse¬ 
quently. dc —* -- 


misled by the outward 

—Young Violinist, 
s played (approximately) as 

..— Y. D. D. 

A. The first or lowest note of the broken 
chord accompanies tile beat in all rases ex- 
here otherwise indicated (as in the 
Mendelssohn “Spring Song”l. There¬ 
in a very slight accent, if any, 

O Kindly let me know to what organiza¬ 
tion one must belong in order to attend the 
Music Teachers’ National Association Con 

A Membership in the Music Teachers’ 
National Association is very easily obtained 
bv corresponding with the Secretary, Waldo 
ny corresj gfi gt Hartford. Conn. 

teacher in good standing may join 
•iation upon payment of the annual 

it staccato shortens a note at 
: its beginning, thus separating 
follows, not necessarily from 
wnat goes uefore. In your first example, 
all the notes are separated in performance, 
in your second only group from group. 

it from wl 


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Practical Manual of Instrumentation. 
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The Bostc- - 

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; in H flat and A are taken for 
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Nonas of America. Bv Simon N. Patten. 
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A collection of songs designed for com¬ 
munity and social singing. The tunes are 

Kease m 

n THE ETUDE when addressing 

The Most 
Method i”. Violin 

Bel Canto 
Violin Method 



A Method that makes 
Teaching and Study 

Page 606 




“The eloquen 

V, $0 

This article is an attempt to outline a 
principle of “footing” which will serve 
the somewhat advanced organ student in 
perfecting himself in pedal playing; and 
to suggest to him a method whereby he 
may play brilliantly with the least ettort. 

Piano methods are more or less widely 
advertised and formerly there were some 
acrimonious controversies over the mer¬ 
its of this or that system of teaching. 
Vocal methods are almost as numerous 
as the vocal teachers, but French, Ger¬ 
man, or English methods of organ play¬ 
ing are of comparatively recent promi¬ 
nence. The “method” in most cases 
seems to reflect the nationality of the 
teacher; and whatever points of differ¬ 
ence there may be in the system of in¬ 
struction, all have one fundamental aim— 
to establish an organ technic and a 
thorough mastery of the instrument. Of 
course, as the manual technic is so 
much like that of the piano we can look 
to the lower extremities to discover the 
principal differences in methods. 

Brilliant Pedal Technic 

The acquisition of a brilliant pedal 
technic requires flexibility, confidence 
and a. peculiar sense of foot distance. 
The student must be able to “See dis¬ 
tances with his feet.” How best to ac¬ 
quire these points is the question. 

The three so-called methods may be 
roughly described thus: The old German 
method was to use alternate toes as much 
as possible and heel and toe occasionally, 
principally in going from a white to a 
black key. This method began to be ob¬ 
solete about forty years ago. An elderly 
friend of the writer who studied organ in 
Germany in 1877 was obliged to play the 
scale of A with alternate toes, beginning 
with the left foot. Once tried, never 

The French Method 

The French method lays more stress 
upon flexibility and uses the heel and 
toe method excessively. The English or¬ 
ganists, particularly the modern ones, use 
what has always seemed to the writer to 
be an admirable mixture of heel and toe 
and single toe methods. Until Monsieur 
Guilmant began his series of organ com¬ 
positions and his concert playing in the 
Trocadero and elsewhere, the pedals were 
somewhat neglected in French organ 
music. Examine the works of Wely and 
Batiste, for instance, and the pedal part 
will be found very subordinate. Guil¬ 
mant, Salome, Gigout, Franck and Widor 
have created a modern French school of 
organ playing and composition which to¬ 
day has far outstripped the schools of 
other nations. 

But our object is to discover the best 
way of acquiring the three necessary feat¬ 
ures of a brilliant pedal technic. First, 
confidence; second, flexibility, and third, 

Confidence can best be acquired by 
the use of pedal exercises which are 

Department for Organists 

Edited for September by R. HUNTINGTON WOODMAN 

t organ waits for the master to waken the 

Principles of Pedal Playing 

By R. Huntington Woodman 

written in such a manner that they 
may be played by alternate toes. By 
keeping the knees and feet together the 
playing of passages without long skips 
will presenf very little difficulty. Locat¬ 
ing notes which are a fifth or more apart 
presents greater difficulties. The writer 
has found, after many years of teaching 
experience, that if the student can locate 
the four gaps between the groups of 
black keys, without looking at them, and 
without hesitation, he will soon acquire 
the necessary confidence-which will en¬ 
able him to .strike practically any note at 
any part , of the pedal keyboard. After 
the student has developed the skill 
necessary to locate any note, passages for 
alternate toes, with and without passages 
for the manuals, should be'diligently prac¬ 
ticed. Confidence can be acquired better 
by using both feet as much as possible— 
in fact, acquiring considerable pedal 
facility with this method before begin¬ 
ning the use of the heel and toe method. 

It should be borne in mind that a 
proper touch should be applied to each 
and every note. Pupils beginning the 
practice of the pedals are recommended 
to exaggerate the ankle touch, until a 
certain flexibility is acquired. This ex¬ 
aggeration can be -done by imagining, 
when striking a pedal key, that vve are 
about to stand on tiptoe. This will re¬ 
sult in the knee rising whenever the toe 
is depressed—a very useful method of 
determining whether the ankle joint is 
flexible, vertically. The weight of the 
leg should never be used to strike a pedal 
key. It is more difficult to acquire a good 
heel touch; but by placing a mental pivot 
through the ankle joint, an idea of the 
proper touch can be suggested at least. 
Raise the toe slightly when striking with 
the heel. There will be some unavoidable 
leg weight in every heel touch, but with 
the pivot idea in mind the leg weight will 
be reduced to a minimum. With the heel 
and toe touches understood, we should 
begin the study of Flexibility. 


Not only must the vertical move¬ 
ment of the toe and heel be accom¬ 
plished with a relaxed leg and ankle,- 
but a sidewise motion of the toe 
and heel must also be acquired with¬ 
out stiffening of the muscles. Scale 
passages principally on the white notes, 
played with each foot alone, with a per¬ 
fect legato touch, will serve to begin this 
study. Skips of a third are also to be 
used and the rapidity of execution can be 
gradudly increased. Care must be taken 
not to twist the leg in extended skips of 
heel and toe. 


We now come to the third requirement 
namely. Dexterity, and this can only re¬ 
sult from careful and diligent practice 
and an intelligent application of all the 
methods of footing alluded to above. 

A short time ago a prominent organist 
sent to a score or two of his well-known 
colleagues a circular letter asking them 

to indicate the proper “footing of the 
scales (in rapid tempo)—copies of which 
were inclosed. The replies differed so 
widely that it was impossible to deduce 
any w-.l!-defined method of footing from 
the indicated markings. To the writers 
mind it is not surprising that a uniform 
footing is not established. With only two 
toes and two heels to play thirty or thir¬ 
ty-two notes, the methods of alternation 
of these extremities must necessarily be 
varied according to circumstances. It 
ought to be possible, however, to find a 
principle of pedalling which will serve in 
the majority of scale passages—a prin¬ 
ciple which will correspond roughly to 
that general precept in finger technic, 
namely, with the right hand place the 
thumb on the white key which lies to the 
right of a black key; and place the left 
thumb on the white key which is to the 
left of a black one. This is a good gen¬ 
eral principle but, like everything in 
music, it has many exceptions. If we can 
discover some general principle on which 
to base our pedal playing we shall have no 
difficulty in finding the most convenient 
■way of playing a pedal passage. We may 
memorize the footing of a certain scaic, 
but it is more than likely that wc shall 
have to change our footing on account of 
special conditions. I would eliminate the 
memory and suggest a principle based 
upon efficiency—which means doing .a 
task with as little friction and lost m” 
tion as possible. That method of “foot¬ 
ing” is best which most completely elim¬ 
inates lost motion. The avoidable lost 
motion is forward and back movement of 
the feet, which can be avoided to a larg - 
extent after the student has acquired 
ankle flexibility and mastered the heel 
and toe method (which, let me repeat, 
should not be used until he is able to 
■play accurately with alternate toes, re¬ 
gardless of lost motion). 

To illustrate the application of the 
avoidance of lost motion, let us take the 
following fragment of the scale of D and 
note how variously the four notes D. E, 
Fjf, G will be “footed" under different 
conditions, depending on the position of 
the feet in preceding or following pas¬ 
sages : 

throughout. (To avoid drawing the rig 
foot backward, the final A in the passa 
could with entire propriety be plaved wi 
the right he«l, as it would be if it we 
followed by a GS or B flat.) The first 
can be played with the right heel in ve 
rapid movement if desired. 

J" No. 2 note the different footi: 
made desirable by the first C sharp 

spirit:'—D ole 

(try this passage with the footing 0 fN 0 
1 and note the quick change of position 
of the left foot in passing from C sharn 
back of the right foot to E. ] n rap y 
tempo the footing marked is much mort 

3 A f. 

In No. 3 we have a passage lying™ 
the upper part of the keyboard. Thm- 
fore begin with the left foot in front of 
the right foot and keep it there. The lira 
G may be played by cither the left hedor 
right toe as may best suit the performer 
If will be noticed that the two feet Veep 
their original position, left in frost of 
right, throughout. 

The passage at 4 lies principally below 
the middle of the keyboard and the most 
convenient position to begin it is with 
the right foot in front of the left, ami 
keep it there until of necessity the left 
foot has to move forward in order to 
play the F sharp. Marked N. B. In these 
four examples the phrase D. E. F sharp G 
has been footed differently each time for 
the purpose of avoiding unnecessary 
“fore and aft” motion, and all oi tie 
passages can be played with great veloc¬ 
ity and little motion. To illustrate this 
principle in complete scale passages let ns 
look at the following: 

Begin with right over left Note the C 
sharp D and E and observe bow folk 
foot motion is required. 

No. 6 is the same passage except at the 
end where the right foot is kept d® f® 
the C sharp and D, while the left W 
already behind, passes under to the ^ 
after playing which it has abundant tin* 
to find the G sharp. Observe the lack o 
fore-and-aft motion. 

More Extended Passages 

Take now an extended scale pass 1 ?' 
No. 7. In rapid tempo it will be 0 ** 5 



PR. WILLIAM C. CARL, Director 

Six Free 

Write for Particulars and New Catalog 

44 West 12 Street 



,fl ers a thorouglilv practical course of 
raining for Church Musicians ; Organ 
’laying; Improvisation; Theory; Praclical 
imposition. Address 

131 Hick. St., Brooklyn, or 
212 West 59 th Strc.t, New York City 



The chief object in this compilation has been 
to cover the ground as widely an.I thoroughly 
as possible, incorporating many novelties and 
original pieces as well as some standard com- 
oosilions and new tiansrupturns not to be 
bond in other collections. 

THEO.PRESSERCO. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Barter and Trade 


Terms and Conditions 

15 cents a word, 

sary to keep the feet in the position in 
which they begin, although there is a lit¬ 
tle awkwardness,at the upper C sharp D 
and E because the right foot has to be 
drawn back, in order that the toe may 
play L and not E flat. 

In more moderate tempo it would be 
well to change the position of the feet in 
the upper octave, getting the left foot in 
front of the right. Thus the upper oc- 
t , : ‘ v T e o f the scale could be footed thus 
(No 8)—pntting left in front of’right at 
—Lut in rapid tempo, much more 

smoothness can be obtained by keeping 
the feet in one position as much as pos¬ 
sible, in spite of a slight awkwardness 
at the upper end of the scale passage. 
(See example 7.) 

Let us apply this principle to a few spe¬ 
cific examples taken from standard organ 
works. In No. 9, observe how easily the 
feet move over the passage and how rap¬ 
idly it can be played with the indicated 

In No. 10 a and 10 b we see two 
methods of footing the same passage. 
The first is taken from an edition of the 
fourth Guilmant Sonata published in 
1886. The second is suggested by the 
writer as productive of greater velocity 
with far less effort. 

N. B.—This E can be played by the 
heel of either foot with equal con¬ 

In No. 11 we have an application of 
this ‘least motion principle” extending 
over two octaves in broken chord forma¬ 
tion. When this passage is played vivace 
it will be perfectly easy to keep a perfect 
legato with practically no motion. One 
change of position, at the fourth measure, 
is advisable. Note, in the descending por- 
of the passage, .the employment of 
the heel and toe respectively on the white 
and black keys. 

SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 607 

lA ustin Q rgans j 

1 'yiME is the greatest 
of teachers. It re¬ 
veals the many mistakes 
of the uninitiated. 

Examine, if you will, 
two or three different 
makes of pipe organs 
that have been in use 
for, say 15 years. 

Time will show which 
one has paid the most 
__ | interest. 

[Austin Organ Co. i 

1165 Woodland St. Hartford, ConnJ 

No dealer advertisements accepted 
by this department. 

All advertisements must be gen¬ 
uine endeavors to either sell, pur¬ 
chase or exchange, used articles of 
real value such as musical instru¬ 
ments, books, music, studio furnish¬ 
ings, etc. 

Advertisements may appear over 
the advertiser’s name or may be 
sent to this office and forwarded. 

FOR SALE— Mv music engraving dies 
and tools—enough for 3 engravers. \\. H. 
Dawley, 3757 Cook Avc., St. Louis, Mo. 

FOR SALE— Library of the Richmond 
Philharmonic Orchestra—123 titles—valued 
at 3400. Am- reasonable offer will be ac¬ 
cepted. Catalog on application. James 
Whittet, Sec'y, Box 553, Richmond, Virginia. 

THE ETUDE : Philadelphia, Pa. 

Now doubtless, many exceptions can be 
found to this principle; but nevertheless 
the writer has found it for many years, 
a most useful basis for his own work and 
in teaching. 

Any of the above passages may be 
footed in other ways, and in moderate 
tempo the results may be equaly good. 
But if a brilliant pedal technic is desired 
the application of the least motion prin¬ 
ciple will accomplish it. 

Lest I lie misunderstood, let me repeat 
that this method is not for absolute be¬ 
ginners. They must first learn to use 
their toes in all positions, deferring the 
application of the above principle until 
after considerable pedal dexterity has 
been acquired. 

War and the Small Organ 

Special Notices 


PIANO TEACHER, successful, desires a 
Position In college or conservatory. Write 
D - M„ care of The Etude. 

ars ' experience. Vera M.‘Derringer, Dick- 


Mrsic COMPOSED Send words. Man- 
“Scnpts corrected. Harmony, correspond- 
yke lessons. Dr. Wooler. Buffalo, N. Y. 

MI sic COMPOSED for Song. Anthem or 
iX* . Tatts - MS. corrected. Orchestra and 

Arrangements. F. ('tlllis Moriey. Io20 
agtaut Street, Philadelphia. _ .- 

E kue mention THE ETUDE when addressing 
our advertisers. 

War seems to have had little effect on 
the demand for organs, if reports from 
the various large builders are an accurate 
gauge—and we can think of no better 
means of judging. The organ builder 
always has worked for a very moderate 
reward. His undoubted achievements 
toward making the worship of the Al- 
jnighty more reverent may bring him his 
reward in the hereafter, but very few 
on earth have won wealth, and many have 
died without means. At present the heavy 
increases in the cost of all materials in¬ 
terpose the great difficulty. The most 
interesting immediate consequence of this 
has been further promotion of the mod¬ 
ern mechanical methods of duplexing, 

A church may not be able under pres¬ 
ent conditions to purchase as large an 
organ as at some previous time. No one 
should claim that fewer pipes can and do 
mean the same organ that a fuller repre¬ 
sentation of stops makes possible, but in 
these days of the conservation of every 
item of natural resources there is reason 
for using all means to make the most of 
what can be bought. The advertising 
columns of The Diapason reflect the fact 
that some builders are showing their cli¬ 
ents the possibilities of mechanical in¬ 
crease of the resources of an organ as 
they never have before. 

Another effort growing out of the pres¬ 
ent situation is the improvement of the 
small organ. Men who formerly strove 
only after the largest contracts now real¬ 
ize the greatly increasing demand for the 
small instrument. It is not how large, 
but how good, in many instances, and 
the development of the seven to fifteen- 

stop organ to its greatest capacity and its 
construction with the best possible mate¬ 
rials and with the most reliable action 
and the most artistic voicing is a task 
worthy of every builder of organs. How 
much better an excellent organ with only 
a few essential stops on each manual than 
one with a large number of stops, but 
with quality lacking in every feature and 
reliability a stranger to the instrument! 

(Apropos of the above, we cannot resist the 
temptation to reprint the specification of a 
very small organ recently built, which seemed 
to us most excellent. Our only criticism is, 
that in so small an Instrument the adjustable 
combinations are not exactly necessary, as 
seven stops are a number easily operated by 
hand. However, they do no harm, and may 
do some good, so we shall not insist too 
strongly on this point.) 

Great Organ. 

Diapason, 3 ft. 

Dulciana, 8 ft. 

Melodia, 8 ft. 

Swell Organ. 

Salicional, 8 ft. 

Gedeckt, 8 ft. 

Flute (Harmonic), 4 ft. 

Pedal Organ. 

Bourdon, 16 ft. 

Couplers and Accessories — Swell to 
great; swell to great, 4 ft.; swell to great, 
16 ft.; swell to swell, 4 ft.; swell to swell, 
16 ft.; swell to pedal; swell untson off; 
great to great, 4 ft.; great to pedal; swell 

Adjustable Combinations — 1, 2, 3, 0, 
swell and pedal; 1, 2, 0, great and pedal; 
00, general release. 

Pedal Movements — Balanced swell; 
sforzando (full organ) reversible; re¬ 
versible great to pedal. — From The Dior 

THE “0RG0BL0” 

er 12.000 equipment! In 



Panama-Paeino auk Ja 

Moller Pipe Organs 

Twenty-five Hundrec 

International Expositions. Satisfaction guaranteed. 
Catalogs, specifications and estimates on request. 

M. P. MOLLER Hagerstown, Maryland 


to Order for those who desire 
the best, the smallest, the largest. 

Established 1867 Springfield, Maas. 

Recent Pipe 
Organ Pieces 

By Popular Writers 

72. Frysinger, J. Frank.Moonlight .40 

64. Sheppard, E. H.Postlude in D .60 

90. Warner. F. H. Allegro con Spirito .60 
33. Pease. S.G.. . .Anniversary March .40 

18. Mauro-Cottone, M.. .Marcia Feetiva .60 

A "Wnced player. 

194. Sheppard. E. H. Allegro Pomposo .60 
*Msyu>play. 8 P 

48. Stulu. R. M.Meditation .40 

104. Schuler, G. S.Postlude in C .60 

Showy, yet easy to play. 

!7K Diggle, R..At Sunrise .40 

Theo. Presser Co. 

1712 Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


Page 60S SEPTEMBER 1918 

THE etude 


II jf 

• *-4 

Department for Violinists 


‘If All Would Play First Violin We Could Get No Orchestra Together. R SCHUMANN 

The Mute Violin 

A correspondent writes: “Kindly ad¬ 
vise if practice on a mute violin is bene¬ 
ficial or detrimental to the person who 
does the practice. Where one does con¬ 
siderable practice oil the mute violin, is it 
likely to give the wrong intonation when 
he plays on his regular violin?” 

Violins constructed so that they give 
only a fraction of the full tone of a nor¬ 
mally constructed violin, are known as 
“mute,” “silent," or “skeleton” . violins. 
They are very useful for practicing in 
hotel rooms, on steamships, in rooming 
houses, late at night, or whenever or 
wherever the practice might annoy other 
people. These instruments are con¬ 
structed according to two general types. 
In the one illustrated below, only a 
framework is used, and as there are no 
sounding boards as furnished by the back 
and belly of the normal violin, the tone is 
very faint indeed. This “skeleton”’violin 
is of the normal size, is equipped with 
regulation fingerboard, has a chin rest, 
and is in all respects like an ordinary 
violin, except that it has no back, belly 
or ribs. 

The other type as shown below, has a 
belly, but no back. It produces a consid¬ 
erably greater volume of tone than the 
“skeleton” violin - shown above, but of 
course much less than a normal violin. 

Now, let us see what can be done with 
these “skeleton” violins. Since all the 
mechanical parts used ip playing are the 
same as in the ordinary violin, *it-is evi¬ 
dent that every composition and technical 
exercise can be played upon it, the only 
difference being the faint tone. The fin¬ 
gering and interval distances are exactly 
the same, and the intonation is the same. 

The principal objection to much prac¬ 
tice on the “skeleton” violin is in the 
character of tone produced. The purely 
mechanical and technical work of the 
violin, bowing exercises, etc., can be suc¬ 
cessfully mastered on such a violin, but 
the development of a fine tone would 
naturally have to be acquired on a nor¬ 
mal violin. Swells, accents, sfYs, etc., 
can be only faintly pfoduced, and it is 
evident that a fine, ringing, sonorous tone 
and the proper shading can only be 
learned on a normal violin which gives 
tones of full volume. It is probable also 
that the player will not be so careful as 
regards intonation, when playing on the 
“silent” violin, since slight differences in 
the intonation would not be so readily 
noticed as in tones of the full strength. 
There is also the objection of the lack of 
inspiration which the player feels when 
producing these faint, thin tones, as com-' 
pared with the sonorous, ringing tones of 
the normal violin. 

While it has its shortcomings as a 
medium for practice, the “silent” violin 
is still of great utility to the student or 
professional violinist who does much 
practice, as there are many occasions, and 
many places where much practice cannot 
be done on account of the annoyance it 
causes others if done with tones of full 
strength. People in rooming houses 
where students live, who might not object 
to an hour or two of loud practice, might 
take serious exception to four or five 
hours. Then there are cases where there 
is sickness in the house, or nervous neigh¬ 
bors who cannot stand any practice at 
all, and all sorts of emergencies, where a 
violin with full tone cannot be used. In 
such cases the “silent” violin offers a con¬ 
venient substitute. Where there is no 
necessity for its use, it is better not to 
use it at all, and to use the normal violin 
with full tone at all times. 

A New Nomenclature 

It has been supposed that every diffi¬ 
culty and musical effect possible in violin 
playing, had been already named, tagged, 
and cataloged by the many great men 
who have been working on the problem 
for the past three hundred years. Accord¬ 
ing to a certain Western paper, however, 
a new genius has arisen, who has revolu¬ 
tionized the art of violin and ’cello play¬ 
ing, at least as far as nomenclature is 
concerned if in nothing else. The fol¬ 
lowing is his announcement: 

Completes Research Work 

Mr. - announces the completion of 

twenty years’ research and experiment In the 
.■esthetic phase of violin and ’cello playing. 
Specific definitions, never before published, 
have been evolved, reducing to Infallible sci¬ 
ence, the production of the beautiful in indi¬ 
vidual tones, and tonal groups. The presen¬ 
tation of the definitions through the three 
great secrets of pedagogy, leads the students 
to the highest, purest inspiration. The terms, 
covering the perfectly co-ordinated nuance, 
right and left, are : 

The Strokes—The Vowel Reiteration, the 
Horizontal Curve, the Vertical Curve, the 
Spiral, the Serpentine, the Simultaneous Re¬ 
lease .and Attack in String Crossing, the 
Sim lltaneous Three and Four Part Chord. 

The Positions—Minus, Perfect and Plus, 
Applied to the Nuance Shift, and to En¬ 
harmonic Changes in Pure Tonality. 

The Shifts—Simple, Compound, Reverse 
Compound, and Surreptltions. 

The Portamenti—The Single Follow Tip, 
the Double Follow Dp, the Reverse, the False, 
the Preparation Spread for Nnance Descent, 
the Cross Relation Nuance Ascent. 

The Vihrati—The Limpid, Middle Curve, 
Florid, Cylindrical, the Half Vibrato.” 


Many violinists fail to consider that 
there is a choice between good tone and 
poor tone in pizzicato no less than in the 
usual bowed notes. One common cause 
of poor tone is the use of the nail in pick¬ 
ing the string, in place of the fleshy tip 
of the finger. The noted orchestra con¬ 
ductor, flans Richter, found this fault 
prevalent years ago in the orchestras in 
England, and being imperfectly acquainted 
with English, he nearly convulsed the 
players at rehearsal by asking them to 
play “not with the horns but with the 
mint" They knew what he meant, how¬ 
ever.— Ftom An Unwritten Diary by C. 
V. Sanford. 

Teaching Material 

The value of using familiar melodies 
as part of the teaching material for de¬ 
veloping violin and ’cello pupils in the 
earlier stages is getting Jo be more and 
more recognized. It is not so many years 
ago that a very large number of teachers 
used exercises alone, and no pieces or 
melodies, in the first year or so of teach¬ 
ing, and in many cases the exercises used 
were so dry, unmelodious and inspid that 
the pupil was more turned against violin 
playing than encouraged. I remember 
some of my earlier lessons under such a 
teacher. He seemed to delisht in hunting 
up the most uninteresting, ungrateful and 
unmelodious exercises for his young pu¬ 
pils, and frowned upon any compositions 
which contained even the ghost of a 
pleasing melody. As a result he found 
great difficulty in getting new pupils, and 
keeping those he had, and it took him 
■ fully twice as long to develop a pupil 
than it would have done had he used 
more pleasing material, which the pupil 

Understafidable Music 
Now, nothing can be more clear than 
that the proper progress of a pupil de¬ 
pends directly on how well he compre¬ 
hends the music assigned to him to f>rac-. 
tice for the next lesson. If he does not 
understand the music, his practice is 
thrown away. If he practices it incor¬ 
rectly it is worse than thrown away. 
Every teacher knows how frequently a 
pupil brings- a lesson which he has prac¬ 
ticed all wrong, possibly in the wrong 
key. For this reason it is of the highest 
importance that material should be used 
which is easily comprehended by the 
pupil, and of such a nature that he can 
hear when he is wrong. Technical exer¬ 
cises, scales, arpeggi, etc., must, of 
course, be used, but it is wise to use in 
connection with them little tunes and mcT 
odies, which the pupil either knows al¬ 
ready or can easily learn. This is an ex¬ 
cellent course to pursue in learning any 
musical instrument, but it is doubly so in 
the case of a beginner on the violin or 
’cello, since on these instruments, he must 
make his own intonation, that is, he is 
obliged to learn by constant practice 
where to place his fingers on a smooth 
fingerboard, without frets. To produce a 
certain tone, the pianist has only to strike 
the right key; the beginner on the violin 
has to grope around on the fingerboard 
with his finger until the proper point is 
reached to produce the tone. 

A pupil of great talent, who can re 
music, and hear the correct pitch of tot 
mentally without the aid of an insti 
ment. can make progress with almost a 
material for practice, but a pupil of les: 
talent is often unable to make much he; 
way unless melodies of the most striki 
and familiar character are used in t 
earlier stages. Later on. of course, mu 
of an entirely different character can 
used. It ,s much the same as teachi 
children to read, in the kindergarten a 
first grades of school. Easy words, si 
pie sentences, and little stories deali 

with facts in the life of the young puoil 
which he can easily understand L 
found to be the best. 

Many instruction books and books 0 f 
studies for the violin are practically 
worthless, because their authors have no 
real talent for composition, and the exer¬ 
cises cannot be comprehended and assim¬ 
ilated by the average pupil. Folk songs 
of all nations make admirable material 
for the beginner in violin playing, in con¬ 
nection with technical exercises. Melod¬ 
ics which are popular with millions of 
people over a long period of years are 
genuine melodies—real inspired musical 
inventions — which would not have 
achieved universal popularity if they had 
not been inspired. Such melodies lay hold 
on the mind of the young student, and he 
grasps them and learns to play them in 
tune ten times as quickly as he would a 
lot of uninspired, tasteless, made-to-or- 
dcr exercises, written by some dry-as- ' 
dust pedagogue, who never had a really 
inspired musical idea in his whole life 

At the present day teachers are using 
an immense amount of teaching material 
consisting of familiar melodics, easy 
themes from the operas, folk songs, pa¬ 
triotic melodics of all countries, little 
dance tunes, popular songs which have 
stood the test of time, and all other real 
red-blooded melodies, filled with life, 
beauty and spirit, and not a dull proces¬ 
sion of lifeless notes made to fill up the 
requisite number of pages in an instruc¬ 
tion book, 

Anton Hcgner, the eminent ’cellist, and 
writer of 'cello music is a great believer 
in the educational power of familiar 
melodies in the first stages of violin and 
’cello practice. As the pupil advances, no 
one is a greater stickler for the very best 
in musical literature, but he recognizes 
the advantage of easy and familiar tune 
in the early stages. In his Recreations for 
Young ’Cellists, Mr. Hegner uses the fol¬ 
lowing melodies, alternating with techni¬ 
cal exercises. The work is intended prin¬ 
cipally for American pupils, and as will 
be seen by the list, the melodies are of a 
type, which every young pupil knows 1? ] 
heart, and can readily hear his mistake j 
when playing them. i 

Old Hundred: Onward Christian Sol- , 

dirrs; Sun of My Soul; Holy. Holy A* 
the Gloaming: America; Nearer My Out 
to Thee; See the Conquering 
C o mes ; A deste Fidelis; Long, Long Ago’, 
Home, Sweet Home; College Son! | 
Gaudcamus loitur; Go Ring Dem Bells, j 
Mary Had a Little Lamb; Ifs a WlJ »' 
Hare at Old Harvard; Tom Big Bit , 
River; Lilly Dale; Yankee Doodle; v*> 
Willie We Have Missed You ; Trent 
Tramp. Tramp; A-Koving; Still M | 
Night; Star Spangled Banner; I* 15 
Ned; Upidee; Flee as a Bird; FT 
the Weasel; Massa’s in ie Cold, t • , 
Ground; Poor Old Slave; Co*> 
Through the Rye; The Ijsss af v* 
mond Hill; Rosa Lee; Maryland. ^ 
Maryland; Rocked in the Cradle of 
Deep; Our Flag Is There; Boys. W 




5 tf)N-PROHIBITIVE prices 


; left hers. Conv.nce yourself. 

' Vnlin has Us price, and it will give us 
Every ,i, em for trial and inspection. 

The "world-renowned •‘Gemunder 

Violins $200.00 to $500.00 each. 
n iJ family relics repaired and restored. 
01“ Tini® payments arranged. 

vy e have Everything for Violinists 
Educational Pamphlets Free on Request 
-TTuTw the Violin World, a monthly. 
Sample copy, 10c. 


America's Violin House. Eat. 1846 
,tl West 42d St. Dept. E New York 

SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 609 



Skovgard says: “You have done 

wonders to my violin! You did what the in¬ 
strument makers of Europe did not dare 
to do, I doubt now that any violin in exis¬ 
tence surpasses mine in power and tone.” 

S3 “ our &£& 

stilled artisans. Itemized estimates furnished. 
Bow repairing » apecinlty. Send for our catalog. 

LYON & HEALY Chicago 

e Long; Rock of Ages; Killarney; which have appeared in late years, prov- 
l ays of Absence; Cheer Boys, Cheer; ing that teachers are becoming alive to 
Glory Halleluja. the fact that {he use of such. melodies 

Many other collections of melodies of facilitates the learning of the violin and 
similar type to the above might be named, ’cello in the earlier stages. 

Use Your Own Violin 

Borrowing violins to play on for spe- vibrations increase in warmth, the r 
cial occasions, as is the custom with so 
many violinists, is a great mistake unless 
the player has the privilege of using the 
violin for practice for a week or two be¬ 
forehand, so as to get thoroughly familiar 
and en rapport with it. Violins differ 
slightly as regards the model, tone, re¬ 
sponsiveness, height of the bridge, thick¬ 
ness, thickness of the neck, set of the 
finger-board, and in some case, length of 
the string from nut to bridge (7/s size 
violins, and where the neck is slightly 
short of normal). The violinist can do 
the best work on his own violin with 
_ , miliar, : 
which from long practice has become, 
it were a part of himself, hs familiar in 
its use as is the larynx to the singer. 

Even a violin which very much re¬ 
sembles another as regard proportions 
and measurements and all mechanical fea¬ 
tures, may respond very differently under 
the bow, introducing the tone. Of the 

the player, discovering their richness and 
variety, seeks from the instrument, a 
sympathetic echo of his own emotions; 
so much so that these violins seem to be 
living beings, and become as it were the 
player’s personal familiars—as if Stradi¬ 
vari had breathed a soul into them, in a 
manner achieved by no other violin 
maker. It is this which stamps them as 
creations of an artistic mind, as positive 
works of art.” 

If, as is the opinion of one of the 
greatest violinists of all time, as ex- 

whicThe" h * thoroughly” familiar, Tnd P , ressed J*? ve ’ the vioH " s of Stradivari, 
—• • * - ... the world s greatest violin maker, must 

be constantly played on by the violinist, 
to discover the secret of drawing out 
their tone, how much more must the 
owner of an ordinary violin, which must 
naturally i ossess many defects, be thor¬ 
oughly at home on his instrument. 

Many inexperienced young violinists 

violins of Stradivarius, Joachim, the; often accept the loan of a violin, possibly 

only a few hours before a public appear- 
which they use in place of their 
unlimited capacity qwn. This is always a great risk, unless 
varied accents the two violins are practically similar in 
all respects. Even slight differences, such 
as weight, or the fact that the strings of 
instrument may lie higher above the 

great violinist once said: “What appears 
to me peculiar to the tone of the violins 
of Stradivarius is an 
for expressing the n 
of feeling. The tone seems to well forth 
like a spring, and to be capable of infinite 
modification under the bow. Stradiva¬ 
rius’ violins affording a strong resistance fingerboard than the other, 
to the bow, when resistance is desired, disconcert the player, when he has 
and yet responding to its lightest breath, 
emphatically require that the player’s ear 
shall patiently listen until it catches the 
secret of drawing out their tone. Their 
beauty of tone is not so easily reached 
as is the case of many other makers. The 

apt t 

familiarize himself with the 
different violin: It is always best to use 
one’s own instrument, even if inferior, 
than to take chances on a strange instru¬ 
ment, with insufficient time to get used to 
it in all features. 

Violin Questions Answered 

Morceaux Classiques 
for Violin and Piano 

Arranged by Henri Strauss 

Price, 50 cents 

A collection of ten pieces by the best 
composers of classical music. They are 
especially adapted for teaching purposes 
and for cultivating a taste forgoodmusic 
in the early study of the violin; being 
within range of the average violin player. 

Theo. Presser Co. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

P. A. A. — Mere age does not make a 
violin valuable. If the violin was not origi¬ 
nally made by band, by a good artist violin 
maker of the proper wood, and according to 
the correct principles of violin making, the 
fact that it is a hundred years old would not 
cut much of a figure. You must first ascer¬ 
tain. from n reliable dealer In old violins, 
whether your violin Is a genuine Stainer. 
Write to one of the dealers In violins whose 
names you will find in the advertising 
columns of The Etude, and arrange to have 
your violin examined. Any of these firms 
"might buv your violin or find a customer, 
if it is a" genuine Stainer in good condition. 
There is a large number of imitation Stainers 
on the market. 

W. H. K.—According to the label which 
ton send the violin was made by Nicola 
Amatl, ln’lG75. There is a very small chance 
that your violin is genuine, as there are 
thousands of Imitations. 

: Is probably an imi- 
'he rough tone you 
from many different 
The viotm may be badly con- 
of poor wood ; the strings may 
lie om, worn, or of poor quality; the bass 
bar and sound post may be badly made, of 
the wrong proportions, or set In the wrong 
place; the violin may be unglued In some 
n rt • the fingerboard may he warped or 
have’ gutters worn under the strings. These 
are a few of tile causes which might result 
in had tone. Take your violin to a first-class 
repairer to be put in proper shape. 

The^Hohmann’s and Hermann s scnoo.s are 
also widely used. These could he flowed 
bv the Kayser studies, Op. 20. -—From 
m/inthq to one vear should be devoted 
position alone, but this, of 
_♦v.c .Hinii’s! tnlpnt and 

the vfolln, might 
effects of this nature from 

ody of 

_ist slight 

slight effect ou the hea... 

-’-’ - any injurious 

lin playing. 

Do i 

e E, 

e what 

violin V-Your ‘letter fails 

ment C of y< th e W ‘Bohemian y GlrL'^so* it Ts'km 

possible to advise when these could he taken 
up for study. 

j, if — Your question as to what effect 
the position in violin playing has on the 
tVoart action Is one for a heart specialist. 
tT is possible that the position of the left 

H. K. — Seventeen Is rather late to com¬ 
mence studying the violin with the view of 
becoming a professional. However, It has 
been done. Much depends on your talent and 
the amount of labor you devr’ “j “ 

.. you are compelled to, on account of 

excessive perspiration. As your letter states 
that you are studying with a fiust-class 
violin teacher, he would be better fitted to 
answer the rest of your questions than one 
who does not know you and has never beard 
you play. 

S. D — Violins with “Ole Bull.” “Paganini,” 
“Conservatory,” “Hopf.” etc., branded In the 
wood, are usually factory fiddles, and as a 
rule of no great valne, even if they have 
■ “been in the family” 75 or 100 vears. Many 
makers of factory violins use the names of 
great violinists as trade marks. 

M. M. S.—The label signifies that the violin 
was made bv .Tohan Baptiste Schweitzer, at 
Budapest, In imitation of an Amati. Schweit¬ 
zer was a well-known Hungarian maker of 
violins and ’cellos. Whether your violin is 

natter than a perfect stranger who 
never heard yon niay. In all such mntte-s 
you should* be guided by your teacher, unless 
you have lost confidence in him, in which 
event you had better get another teacher. 
Pupils make a serious mistake In trying t 


10 Tested Lengths, OCp 
’Silk Violin E, for 

Send for Violin and Cello Catalogue 


25 « 

The Etude 

reliable strings. 
The ETUDE^ St 

THEO. PRESSER CO. Philadelphia, Pa. 

W. J. O.—The . fact that the word “Ger¬ 
many” appears on the Stradivarius label in 
your violin, indicates that the instrument is 
a German copy of a Rtrad. Absolutely Im¬ 
possible to set a value on the violin within 

Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing 

Page 610 SEPTEMBER 1918 


“ Vacation’s Done ” 

Vacation's done, hip, hip, hooray! 

It was a lovely holiday, 

But now we must go back to school. 

We don’t mind that—it’s getting cool. 

We feel like studying to-day, 

And when we’re through, we’ll dance and 

The fall has come, but we don’t care, 
There’s something in the Autumn air 

That makes us want to get to work; 

Our study hours we will not shirk. 

We’ll start our music lessons, too, 

And practice hard, we promise you. 

We’ll do just as our teacher says. 

And keep it up through winter days. 

That’s what we’ll do, and by next spring 
We’ll know our scales and everything! 


September is a queer time of the year, 
is it not? It is a mixture—“fifty-fifty”— 
partly summer and partly fall. 

On warm days we feel like pretending 
that it is still summer-time, and vacation¬ 
time, and on cool days we feel that it 
is winter-time and work-time, and we 
feel like “starting something.” 

But then, if we do “start something” 
we sometimes feel like saying “Oh, well, 
it is only September, I will work harder 
in October.” 

Instead of such a sentiment as that we 
should «ay to ourselves “Oh, what a per¬ 
fectly lovely day! I am going to work 
hard to-day and do some earnest practic¬ 
ing, to make up for some of the time 
spent doing nothing in vacation.” 

If October came right after summer 
it would be such a sudden change that 
no one would be ready for work; so 
September comes and gives us a chance 
to brush up and get things in working 
order; then by October everything is run¬ 
ning along as it should. 

Only remember that you are one entire 
season ahead of where you were last 
year, and that means that you are older 
and more advanced musically, and that 
one whole year’s worth of improvement 
is expected of you, so bear this in mind, 
and make a good beginning this Sep- 

Oh, Wolfgang! 

Young Wolfgang while playing his scales 
Remarks every time that he fails. 

My fingers have blisters, 

And so have my sisters. 

I’d rather go fishing for whales. 

Princess Pure-Tone 
a. l. c. 

Once upon a time there lived an old 
lady called Music-Tone, and she had two 
daughters—Pure-Tone and Poor-Tone. 

Pure-Tone was very pretty and she 
loved to sing and make sweet sounds, but 
Poor-Tone did not like to sing at all, and 
was envious of her sister’s beautiful 

This was very long ago, and in those* 
days people did not know much about 
music. They thought it was very pretty 
and loved to hear it, and everybody al¬ 
ways loved to -hear Pure-Tone sing. 
They often wondered why her singing 
sounded so much prettier than her sis¬ 
ter’s, but they did not know that it 
was because she practiced"! Pure-Tone 
herself did not know that—in fact, she 
never knew that she was practicing—she 
was just trying to make beautiful sounds. 

Sometimes she would go out in the 
woods and sing to the birds and the 
butterflies. She enjoyed doing that, but 
she did not know that she was singing 
to the fairies, too—she had never even 
heard of the good little fairies who lived 
in the woods and who were listening to 

Every day she went into the woods 
to sing, and every day the fairies lis¬ 
tened to her without letting her know 
that they were there, until one day they 
formed a circle around her, and she saw 
them for the first time. 

“Oh, how beautiful you are!” she cried 
in delight. 

“And" how beautifully you sing,” they 
answered. ' 

And one of the fairies—one of the 
prettiest—stepped up to her and held out 
a little crown. 

“We are going to give you this little 
crown because you make such pretty . 
music for us,” said the fairy, and as she 
spoke she placed the little crown on 
Pure-Tone’s golden hair. 

“Thank you,” said Pure-Tone. “Do 
you really like music?” 

“Indeed we do, we love it,” they 

“I am so glad,” she said, “but dear 
me ! A real crown 1 What does it look 
like?” she asked as she raised her hand to 
touch it. s May I take it off and look at 
it?” she asked eagerly. 

“Certainly,” said the fairies. 

“Oh, how lovely it is,” she cried as she 
held it in her hands. “It has letters on it, 
too. Do tell me what they mean.” 

“They are the names of the tones you 
have been singing,” explained the fairies. 
“A, B, C, D, E, F, G.” 

“I did not know that tones had names.” 
said Pure-Tone. “I thought they only 
had sound.” 

“Oh, yes, they have names, too—each 
sound has a name. A, B, C, D, E, F, G," 
they told her. 

“How interesting,” cried Pure-Tone; 
“but how do you know which is which?” 
she asked. 

“If you come to-morrow we will tell 
you. It is too late now,” and as they 
spoke the fairies vanished. 

“Well!” she cried. “I wish they had 
Stayed a little longer! But I must hurry 
home now and tell my sister about the 
tones and their names,” she said to her¬ 
self, “and to-morrow I will come again 
to the woods and learn more from the 
little music-fairies.” 

Junior Etude Blanket 

Some of you, perhaps, did not red 
last months Junior Etude, so this is to 
tell you about the Junior Etude Blanket 
(If you did read it last month you ncej 
not read the rest of this, but do not lor- I 

get to send in your squares as soon as ! 


The Junior readers are going to malt 
knitted squares for "convalescent blank¬ 
ets” for the soldiers and sailors. Tht 
squares may be made of any color yam 
you happen to have, but they must be ! 
seven inches square. It takes 90 square 
to make a blanket, so get busy right away 1 

.and make your square, and send it to \ 

“Junior Etude Blanket,” 1712 Chtstms j 
Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The squares will be put together and 
the blankets donated to the Red Cross, j 
with the names of every one who did 
their "bit” by making a square. 

Junior Etude Competition 
For September 

The Junior Etude will award three j 
pretty prizes each month for the best ! 
original stories or essays, answers to pm- j 
zlcs, and kodak pictures on musical sub- j 

Subject for story or essay this month, ! 
“Mv Ambition,’’ and must contain not J 
more than one hundred and fifty words !i 
Write on one side of the paper only. 

Any l>oy or girl under fifteen ytars of j 
age may compete. 

All contributions must bear name age. | 
and address of sender, and must be sea j; 
to the “Junior Etude Competition,” 1712 J 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, before Sep- j 
tember IS. 

The names of the winners and their 
contributions will be published in the 
November issue. 


(Prize Winner.) 

“Music” expresses thoughts and feel¬ 

“Patriotism”’ is a feeling for one’s 

“Music” and “Patriotism” are like a sil¬ 
ver spoon and sugar in the cup The 
spoon, which is music, stirs the sugar. I 
which is patriotism. A musician is like j 
one who holds the spoon. When he sings I 
or plays patriotic airs be stirs the pa- ' 
triotism of his hearers, thus sweetening J 
them, as the stirring of the sugar sweet- j 
ens the coffee. 

As for example: When our SobEer 
Boys leave for the camp and the hand 
plays the much loved patriotic | 

the music arouses our patriotism a* 1 |j 
helps the boys to sustain their courage- 

Music is therefore a stimulant to P* ! 

Dorothy Richards (Age l’ 1 * 

S. Brownsville, Pl 

Do you want to do your bit? It is every Junior’s 
bit at this time to make as much bright music and 
as many happy smiles in the homes as possible. 
Father needs them, mother needs them—the whole 
family needs them. 



MU (Prize Winner.) 

to feel patriotic when the lads 
nfkfor blue are marching by to the 
in m , the t> a nd. Both the paraders 
"^spectators feel their hearts beat- 
a “ f -ter and they inwardly resolve to 
in ° i thev can to help their country. 

M how do they feel when there are no 
a no music to march to ? Over in 
Retrenches, the boys are not having “a 
tj 1 . ” They are facing the real side 

f the war with no music and stirring 
but with guns and good American 
Se! Then is the time when their 

P Whm I they°are downhearted, there is 
nothing as good as a jolly “singing time” 
“ restore their cheerfulness, even though 
jjeir voices be accompanied only by a 
mouth organ. 

Music helps to make us patriotic, and 
u„, us to stay patriotic. 

W Florence Duff.eld (Age 14), 
Camden, N. J. 


(Prize Essay.) 

One day while taking my favorite walk 
to the park, I found a large, white tent 
pitched there. After seeing many people 
in I decided to follow them. 

Inside was a short, elderly man trying 
his best to influence the people to sub¬ 
scribe for “Liberty Bonds.” After urg¬ 
ing them on and on without much re¬ 
sponse, he asked for a volunteer to help 
him in this worthy enterprise. Jumping 
out of my seat and quickly getting on 
the platform I said, "Listen I” 

A pin could have been heard as I played 
softly and sweetly* the “Star Spangled 

Then 1 arose and cried out, “Do you 
want that flag torn down ?’’ 

The answer came loud and clear, “It 
never shall be!” 

In a little while all of the bonds were 
sold and the town went over its quota. 

Sylvia E. Lyons (Age 14), 
Cambridge. Mass. 

Honorable Mention. 
Frances Caldwell. 

Betty Compton. 

Janies Halleck Hean. 

Dorothy Long. 

Thelma McLevy. 

Ruth Meritzen. 

Dolores Manion. 

Fern Peterson. 

Jewell Roberts. 

Marline Snyder. 

Margaret Niven Wilz. 

Regina D. Wurdssewski. 

Puzzle Corner 

The following names of famous operas 
»re misspelt Spell them correctly using 
the same letters: 

1. Tafus 6. Gomnin 

2. Macner 7. Gerotitol 

3. Gohunenst 8. Dorideeha 

4. Hamats 9. Atari tav 

5. Moran 10. Aulic 

The answer to the July puzzle is 
'America” (“My Country ’Tis of Thee”). 
A great many correct answers were sent 
?* 80 'be prize winners were selected 
bom the nearest and best arranged. So 
tuny of you forget (?) to be neat! 

Prize Winners Are : 

Sarah Flaherty. East Boston, Mass. 

Marion Spaulding, Amherst, Mass. 

Janie Sinclair, Ellerslie, Ga. 

Honorable Mention. 

Amelia Bosch 
Violet Chott 
Leah Clymer 
Elina Fredlund 
Mildred Friday 
Arline Miller 

Elsie Montag 
Helen Rathmann 
Raymond Simpson 
Esther Silver 
Elizabeth Sternbenz 
Timothy J. Strange 
Marguerite Stalker 
Florence Wieland 

“Meeting of the Wednesday 

By Jo-Shipley Watson 

A Story Recital for Little People 

(The following piano pieces are grade 
I, II and III, and have appeared in for¬ 
mer issues of The Etude. Into the 
blank space insert the title of the piece 
that will make good reading, chosen from 
the following pieces: Little Boy Blue, 
Martin; Evening Song, Schubert; Sylvia, 
Norris; Rose Petals, Lawson; Gayety, 
Loeb-Evans; Game of Tag, Clark; Pop¬ 
pies, Granfield; Approach of Spring 
(duet), Lindsay; Wood Fairies, Renard; 
Spring Flowers, W. A. Smith; Pleasant 
Thoughts, Rowe; In Endless Mischief, 
Fearis; Joyous Message, Mathey. After 
this has been done, read the story and 
play the pieces.) 

Tilly Time and Thomas Tempo started 
out one day for a jolly time in the coun¬ 
try. It was warm and sunny, the last 
snowdrift had melted from the hedge 
rows, the birds twittered and squirrels 
sprang from bough to bough, it was 


Tilly Time laughed and swung her bon¬ 
net by the strings and Thomas Tempo 
threw stones and played leap-frog over 
all the stumps in the wood. Sky and 
air and wood—yes, the whole world, 

was filled with (.). 

“Come now, • Thomas Tempo,” said 
Tilly Time, “it is not fair to play leap¬ 
frog and leave me out, let’s have 

( . >■ 

Cows dozed in the pasture near by 
and bees hummed in the undergrowth, 
flowers peeped from under the brown 
leaves of winter. A tiny horn sounded 
from a distance. “I know that horn,” 
said Tilly Time, peeping over the hedge 
row. “I know it, too,” chimed in Thomas 

Tempo. “It’s (.)• 

said both of the children at once. The 

horn filled the children with (. 

.) ; they loved its soft sweet 

music. They sat down to rest and to 
listen. “It must be almost noon,” said 
Tilly Time, and she unfastened her lunch 
box. “How quiet and warm it is here,” 
said Thomas Tempo, and before the chil¬ 
dren were aware of their presence, out 

came (.)> an d aS Htey 

touched their eyelids with their magic 
wands the children fell fast asleep. 

(.), Queen of the 

Fairies, said “We will strew them with 

(.) and (.)• 

The birds flew east and west, the shad¬ 
ows grew long, the squirrels ran to their 
nests, the cows walked slowly toward 
home, the sun sank and in the distance 

the herdsman sang his (.• • - -) • 

Peace and silence reigned in the wood. 
Suddenly there was a snapping of sticks 
and rustle of leaves: the frightened rab¬ 
bits scurried before the noise. Some 
one was coming. See—it is old Father 
Metronome wagging his head from side 
to side—how excited he is! Listen 1 
“Where are my beloved children? he 
says at every step. “Alas, alas, are they 
lost, are they again (..---.-••>? 

At last Tilly Time and Thomas Tempo 
are aroused from their poppy-drugged 
deeri • they are cold and frightened. 
“Where are we?” they cried. Old Father 
Metronome never answered a word, he 
was spent and breathless; seizing them 
by the hands he dragged them from the 
wood and hurried toward the village 
with the ..'• 

Club President, 




Enter Madame President: Ethel has 
prepared a paper on Carl Tausig. I hope 
you all know something about him. Raise 
your hands, all of those who do. 

Members. ( Raise hands ). 

Madame President ( counting ) : One, 
two, three, four, five, do not. Well, girls, 
all I can say is listen to Ethel and then 
look him up for yourselves; that’s the 
best way. Now, Ethel. 

Ethel ( standing ) : After reading about 
Carl Tausig, I have thought of him a 
great deal, and I hope after I have 
finished this paper you will think enough 
of Tausig to read about him on your 
own account. (Reads'): Carl Tausig 
was a Pole, born in Warsaw in the year 
1841. His father was his first teacher. 
When Tausig was fourteen years old his 
father took him to the great master, Liszt, 
in Weimar. Lj|zt lived at the Alte Burg, 
giving lessons (gratis) to a brilliant set 
of young musicians. 

Among the famous pupils at that time, 
were Bulow, Klindworth, Joachim, Raff 
and others. In this small Thuringian 
town, music had reached a high state of 
development. There was an opera house 
and an orchestra. Liszt was the capell- 
meister and Joseph Joachim was concert- 
meister of the orchestra; there was also 
a staff of singers. Weimar was consid¬ 
ered the center of “music of the future.” 
Tannhduser and Lohengrin were two of 
the new Wagner operas brought out by 
Liszt. When Tausig came to play for 
Liszt, there were many listeners present. 
Peter Cornelius was one of the circle, 
and he said: “When Tausig sat down to 
play he dashed into Chopin’s A flat Polo¬ 
naise and knocked us clean over with the 
octaves.” From that very day Tausig 
was Liszt’s favorite pupil. 

Tausig was a hard worker, not only at 
piano playing hut at counterpoint as well. 
Liszt called him “the infallible, with his 
fingers of steel.” He played from mem¬ 
ory every well-known composition, from 
Scarlatti to Liszt. There was no trace of 
physical effort in his playing; when he 
was performing difficult passages, he 
played with ease and composure. His 
tone was superb and his style impassioned 
and impulsive. Tausig made his debut in 
Berlin when he was seventeen years old, 
playing with orchestra. The conductor 
was Hans volt Bulow, who was also a 
Liszt pupil. After a few years touring 
Europe as a virtuoso, Tausig retired and 
devoted himself to a life of study. It 
was several years before he appeared in 
public again in Berlin, but when he did 
appear he was universally recognized as a 

He opened a school for piano playing 
in Berlin and had many famous pupils. 
He gave frequent concerts, his “Chopin 
recitals” being the most successful. But 
in the midst of all this success he died 
very young,—scarcely thirty years old. 

Tausig’s transcriptions and arrange¬ 
ments of masterpieces are well known 
among players. The best known are 
Schubert’s Marche Militaire, Bach’s Toc¬ 
cata and Fugue in D minor, Weber’s In¬ 
vitation to the Dance, Scarlatti’s three 
Sonatas, Pastorale and Capriccio and 
Clementi’s Gradus ad Parnassum, a set 
of most useful studies. 

Madame President ( rising): Now girls, 
Jean is to play one of the Tausig ar- 

SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 611 

rangements, the Scarlatti Pastorale and 

Members (clapping). 

Jean (goes to piano): The Pastorale is 
played without much pedal because the 
pianos in those days had no tone-sustain¬ 
ing pedals, as we have. I found the Cap¬ 
riccio very much harder than the Pas¬ 
torale, but they are both excellent prac¬ 
tice. (Plays.) 

Madame President (bowing to Jean) : 
I hope we-will have an illustration every 

The subject for the next time is Hans 
von Bulow. You know, girls, we are 
going to take up all of the Liszt pupils 
first, then we will do some of the other 
famous pianists of the nineteenth cen¬ 
tury. Now we will have our games. 
Jean is to distribute the prizes. 

(Club goes to another room.) 

Weeds of Neglect 

By Jo-Shipley Watson 


Mary Foster was a freshman at High 
School. An unwritten law among fresh¬ 
men at High School is to “drop music.” 
Of course Mary dropped it. Have you 
ever noticed how easy it is in music to 
drop from two lessons to one and finally 


Mary was much too busy to notice the 
weeds of neglect covering up her beauti¬ 
ful music. She moved quickly along the 
path and did not look behind her. There 
was no regret. “I have no time for 
music,” she said, and so the piano was 
silent, except for the half hour Sunday 
evening when Mr. Foster sang hymns 
with his wife. Mary was seldom present, 
—she did not enjoy hymns. 


Mary went through High School; she 
studied German and Latin and she cooked 
and sewed; she was thoroughly ptactical 
and studious. School days were over at 
last and Mary was graduated. 

The Foster piano had been closed for 
over a year. Since Mr. Foster’s death, 
Mary’s mother had not cared to play and 
sing on Sunday evening, and the neigh¬ 
bors missed the sweet old-fashioned mu- 


Mary had nothing to do. It was out of 
the question to read German and Latin 
text-books, she was not. needed in the 
kitchen and she cared, little about sew¬ 
ing. Some of her friends were going 
away in the fall to study music. She 
wished she were going somewhere, life 
seemed so dull at home. One day the 
thought of her neglected music stirred in 
her memory. She said brightly, “I will 
pick it up again.” 


Mary opened the piano, the keys were 
tinged with yellow, they jangled harshly 
and seemed strangely out of tune. Mary 
tried again to play the little third-grade 
waltz, her last recital piece. She looked 
at her hands and wondered why they felt 
so odd to her. They were stiff and would 
not obey her and she could not remember 
the waltz. She turned to the music cabi¬ 
net and then two big tears fell upon the 
backless old “Instructor.” 


Deep down under the weeds of neglect 
Mary’s music is buried. Regret marks 
the spot where its beauty lies hidden. 
Music, when once laid aside, is not picked . 
up so easily. 



—=si— Music Works 

Page 612 SEPTEMBER 1918 

Study Sherwood Piano Lessons 
and Harmony Under 
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SPAULDING, GEO. L. Tunes & Rhymes for the Playroom. Price 60c. 

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TK. Sh«, Mu«c and Mud, Book public. io„. a D o b |i, h . r . („ 

Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing onr advertisers. 

0 etude 

^nual Money- 
SavinS off ers 

On the P 8 g e following this one will be 

fnnd two series of what m,ght ,e 
“bargain” offers on new publica¬ 
n-one Offer, on World in Advance 
^Publication: the other Final Introduc- 
Oilers on New Publications. The 
Z numbers 1 to 22, are the ones usu- 
V found under this head each month 
m works not yet in print offered at very 
low prices, just about the cost of paper 
and printing for purposes of introduction. 
Manv of our patrons have never missed 
offer on one work. There certainly 
1, „„ hotter wav to keep abreast of the 

The second offer, numbers 23 to (i t, con¬ 
sists of the last opportunity to obtain one 
copy of the new publications whicli have 
appeared during the previous twelve 
months, a final introductory offer just as 
the name implies, and at a very low price 
because of the purpose, that is, to have 
our works known among those who are 
interested in them. Certainly a mutually 
advantageous proposition. 

A Substantial Bonus. With every 
J2.00 worth purchased from the offers 
mentioned above, numbers 1 to 64. wc will 
in addition present one of the well-known 
works mentioned in the blank found on 
page 615. The conditions of ull the 
above orders are that cash accompany the 
order, merchandise to lie delivered post¬ 
paid, and please mention the bonus book 

These September offers have been made 
bp us at this opening date of the season 
for a number of years. They arc taken 
advantage of to a very large extent. We 
have never had one word of eomplaint, 
not one word of disappointment. They 
could hardly be even called “bargains,” 
they give so much for so little. Why? 
Because the advantage of having a work 
in the hands of progressive teachers is of 
value to every publishing house. 

Order Music 
Supplies Early 

There is nothing in a music teacher’s 
experience that is quite so annoying as a 
lack of material, such as instruction books, 
studies, exercises, pieces, etc., with which 
to start the season's work; many teachers, 
md their number increases year by year, 
make it a point to get in their music, like 
foal, in the summer months, thus avoid¬ 
ing the delays and disappointments of the 
inter period and at the same time giving 
themselves opportunity to “go over” and 
to become acquainted with the newer 
things so desirable in creating new in¬ 
terest on the pupil's part. 

We have ample proof that the “early 
order” plan has produced most satisfac- 
% results and we most sincerely urge all 
toners to take advantage of the sugges- 
™i. Not only outright purchases, but 
™° “On Sale” music returnable if not 
"nod should he ordered immediately so 
* ,0 “sure delivers- before actual work 
“fins Details of'the “On Sale” plan 
■“ay be had on application but if one is 
Passed for time a mere outline of what 
{ need( “ ( i will make it possible for us to 
“(ward an “On Sale" package of material 
" lect ed to meet the wants of the individ- 
"^r-no two packages are ever 
° en * lca i~and each assortment is made 
P ny a trained musician familiar with 
e cequirements of music teaching. 

War Time Prices 
on Music 

The conditions growing out of the war 
have affected the price of musical mer¬ 
chandise not only to the trade, but also 
to the profession. We are very much in¬ 
terested in this subject from the pro¬ 
fessional standpoint. It has often oc¬ 
curred to us what stress the music teach¬ 
ers will lay on supplying their pupils with 
sheet music and books, whether they look 
for some profit, or whether they give it 
to the pupils at cost. A consensus of 
opinion on this question would be very 

There are other questions of even 
greater moment, At the present time 
there is a movement among some of the 
lending publishers to reduce the price of 
sheet music one third, that is, a piece 
marked 60 cents will be marked 40 cents 
—no discount from this price will be given 
cither to the teachers or the public. This 
is possibly the most radical change, owing 
to war conditions, that has ever yet been 
made. This price will be carried through 
not only with sheet music, but also with 
the cheap editions and all books. The 
price will lie marked “Net,” no discount 
to anyone excepting the trade. Just how 
this will affect the teachers throughout the 
country will be intensely interesting to 
every publisher and dealer. 

We have increased our prices on all 
books 20 per cent. A book that has been 
selling for 50 cents is now marked 60 
cents and a book that was marked $1.00 is 
now $1.20, but the discount that we have 
been allowing tne teachers remains the 
same; in other words, the teachers receive 
the usual discount, and the consumer pays 
the 20 per cent, more than formerly. 

We will be pleased indeed td receive 
from the readers of The Etude opinions 
on these questions and any further infor¬ 
mation that may be valuable to a pub- 
lisner will be gladly received. 

Our purpose in doing this is to obtain 
all the information on this question that it 
is possible to get, and that any of the 
practical teachers may submit to us. 

ear Book for 
lusic Teachers 

At this season the music teachers 
iroughout the country are preparing for 
le coming season. Among other conveni- 
nces, the Year Book which we have pre- 
ared should not be forgotten. This lit- 
le book, which is small enough for a vest 
ocket, contains some very useful mate- 
ial. It will be distributed free to active 
•achers. The usual price for it is 12 

^’contains a directory of pupils, giv- 
space for date, name, address and tele- 
hone number of every pupil. Then 
omes the Lesson Scneaule of each day 
f the week from 9-6. There are enough 
, at r e s of this kind to last throughout the 
eason. Then comes a set of rules for 
iractice, and after that a select list of 
erv easy teaching pieces, with blank 
•ages following on which to write addi- 
ional very easy pieces. The next section 
" ins wilh the next grade, that is easy 
eaohing material. This list occupies six 
„ seven pages. Then come the memo- 
andum pages which are followed by a 
elect list of medium grade pieces with 
.lank pages for additional pieces, and 
hese again are followed by an excellent 
ist of the best difficult pieces, with blank 
ages. Then come four-hand pieces, then 
nme very valuable material, such as the 
nention of recent deaths of composers, 

SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 613 

and a very good pronouncing dictionary 
of musical celebrities. 

We shall be very glad to send this book¬ 
let to any active teacher gratis, upon ap¬ 

Music Supplies 
By Mail 

The new teaching season is about to be¬ 
gin in all parts of the country and natur¬ 
ally one of the first things to be con¬ 
sidered is a useful and plentiful supply 
of teaching material which leads at once 
to the question of a reliable and conveni¬ 
ent source of supply; the music house of 
Theo. Presser Company needs no intro¬ 
duction to our regular readers, many 
thousands of whom are fully acquainted 
with the house’s ability to meet all de¬ 
mands for whatever is essential in the 
teacher’s work. 

No individual music publishing estab¬ 
lishment anywhere has made such a thor¬ 
ough and successful study of the teacher’s 
needs and none is better equipped not 
only in respect to its own publications 
but also in its complete general stock of 
music and music books issued by other 
publishers, both American and European. 

A combination of low prices, liberal dis¬ 
counts and prompt service has placed this 
house in a firm position as a music-shop¬ 
ping center, regardless of distance from 
the teacher’s own location. Not even the 
present and inevitable changes in habits 
and occupations seem to affect the usual 
demand for music for both teaching and 
recreation, and we have experienced a 
series of “agreeable disappointments” in 
that regard during the past eighteen 
months. Two facts seem to stand out with 
special prominence: Music teaching is not 
being neglected or even losing ground, 
and, there is no falling off in the number 
of teachers who regularly obtain their 
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September Cut Prices 
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The Etude Magazine Guide lists many 
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Premium Rewards for 
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The Etude rewards its friends who ob¬ 
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all cost, useful and valuable gifts. These 
consist of articles for personal and house¬ 
hold use as well as music books and al¬ 
bums and other musical goods. 

A postal card will bring you a copy of 
the new illustrated premium catalog list¬ 
ing many of these gifts. Below we men¬ 
tion but a few. 

For ONE. Subscription. 

Picture Frame. Made of non-tarnish- 
able platinoid; height six inches, width four 
and one-quarter inches. These frames are 
backed with velvet and substantially built. 

Knitting Needles. Amber; fourteen- 
inch, size four and one-half, amber, ten- 
inch, size five. 

Sterling Silver Service Pin. Beauti¬ 
fully enameled in the national colors, with 
one, two or three stars. 

Gold-filled Shirtwaist Set of Three 
Pins. A bar pin, two and a half inches 
long, and two small pins, each one inch; 
attractive pattern. 

Beginner’s Book for the Pianoforte. 
Theo. Presser. 

Study of Bach. Operatic Four-Hand 
Album. Twenty duets. 

Students’ Popular Album. For Violin 
and Piano. 

For TWO Subscriptions. 

Manicure Brush. Fine horse hair 
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Brooch of the Allies. A sterling sil¬ 
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with fourteen carat gold pen and two gold 

Black Seal Grain, Morean Lined, 
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inches deep, with hand strap on back. 

Gold-filled Chatelaine Pin. For use 
as ordinary waist pin or brooch, guaran¬ 
teed for ten years’ wear. 

Modern Drawing Room Pieces. Thirty- 
four piano pieces. 

Mozart Sonatas. In two volumes, 
either one volume. 

Songs Without Words. Mendelssohn. 
Concert Duets. Twenty-four pieces. 

For THREE Subscriptions. 

Solid Gold Lavalieres. Diamond shape 
with amethyst and four pearls and 
one large pearl, pendant measuring one 
inch, or with one pearl and large ame¬ 
thyst; size of pendant, one and a quarter 

Cold Meat Fork. Mounted in a sterl¬ 
ing silver handle with the latest thread 
design. A useful and ornamental article. 

A Cut Glass Vase. Ten inches high, 
attractive flower design. 

One Year’s Subscription to the 

Musical Kindergarten Method. Batch- 

Choir and Chorus Conducting. F. W. 

History of Music. W. J. Baltzell. 

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The issues of any three months from May 
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Three months’ subscription coupons will 
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splendid chance to widen the circle of 
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Magazine and add to its great usefulness. 

Page 61J+ SEPTEMBER 1918 

lB Mum 

Annual Sept. Money Saving' 

On This Page are Offers on Works in Advance of Publication 

Numbers 1 to 22 are works not yet published that will be delivered the moment 
they appear from press. The low price offers greatly aid and reward the enterprise 
ot thousands of progressive music workers who want to be among the first to secure 
Incidentally the publishers secure the best possible in- 

Conditions— Order by Offer Number. Cash to accompany all orders; 
additional when charged to regular account. At_the»f Offer Pnee.the work, £ 

Si ”." 1 i »S b ° d “-* 

$2 0 ° “send a^orXs t TOEO. PREISER CO., 1712 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, P,. 

The First Advance of Publication Offering of Nine Important Works 


f- 1—Album of American Com- £ 
posers p 

ie thing the war has certainly stimu- 
ted and that is the American composer, 
,v receiving more appreciation 
advantages and is becoming 

50 5 

- promiuer.. „„ M „„ H 
European composers are almost H( ul± ±ll)u 

}? an f,xf ' eller >t thing, and we should Ik 
glad that this has been brought about by the war 
because it is producing a wonderful stimulus among 

" 7 e have been inspired to bring out an album of 
he best American composers of music 
me excellent material for this purpose! 
ana we are going to make a volume that will be a 
credit to American music. We will not include any 
“ ' is, but only those of medium 

No. 3—L'Art Du Clavier. By Theo¬ 
dore Lack. Op. r* 

Price, Poitpaic 


-zed an original work 

r'uiu technic from this celebrated Frei 
composer and teacher. This work Is i 
intended for beginners. It may he tni 
up for the pupil who has been studyi~„ 
for two or three years. This work is entirely orig¬ 
inal, and there is nothing similar on the market. It 
s---- -rises or velocity studies, neither is 

50 s 

book of pure technic. __ ___ 
en these two The exercises ar 
hundred of them. 

ids half v 

nd t 

through ail the 

.err:: ... 

The grace and finish of the French musician is ap¬ 
parent on^every page. ^ A work of such decided merit 

'hey take you 

—. — - r _ _ difficulties of 

technic, and yet the idea of artistic piano play- 

-■. lost S lgjj t 

25 c 

No. 5—Eroticon. Five Pieces for the ( 

Piano. By Emil Sjogren ft-- »“ 

This volume will be added to the Pressor — 
Collection. It consists of five extremely fff ^ C 

interesting modern s'-ngs "It I.. words 

by the celebrated Swedish composer, 

Sjogren. These pieces will uppeal espe- 
ciallv to moderately advanced players. They eonial 
a wealth of modern melodic and harmonic Interes 
Our new edition has been prepared with the utmw 

No. 6—Spaulding Album for the pip** “* r 
Pianoforte. Rta’rXS 

A new collection of intermediate grade. 

25 s 


No^ 9—Biehl, Op. 44, Book 2. ^Easy and Ca>h 

g^£g|SK£S 2(j- 

Sal 20 ' 


SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 615 

Opportunity for Music Buyers 

On This Page are Final Introductory Offers on New Publications 

Knowing that acquainting the with these late publications will rouse an 
enthusiasm that w.ll lead to many more des.rable sales, the publishers present this 
ast chance to secure these important works at just about the cost of manufacture. 
One copy only at these prices. The offers . Nos. 23 to 64 inclusive) on this and 
the following page re fe r to works already published and immediately deliverable. 


No. 23 —Interpretation Studies by F. C. 

Rornschein Uotii'sept. 

Ti, PS e interpretation Studies are Intended 
™r it. mmil s imagination, unTl ' 

Conditions: Orde, -—. —- — —— — - • - 

additional when charged to regular account. At these low offer prices the 
are not returnable. Final Introductory Offer Prices are good only for September, 
1918. Remember there is a bonus offered on $2.00 and $3.00 purchases made kom Off¬ 
ers Nos. 1 to 64 inclusive. Send orders only to Theo. Presser Co., 1712 Chestnut St., Phila., Pa. 

maw the pupil --- 

S 6 g«~Sg 


S$i? «n be readily app 

lie physical conditio 
bended. They are 
;>nd and third) grad 



No.24—Five Lyric Studies. By Edw. ^^ u p", 7 p .id ,h 

Baxter Perry Umii’s«pi. 3 o,i 9 iB 

In the form of small lyric composition! 

SStaUlIellcr. * Careful lingering and phras- 
lug! together with descriptive annotations pla 

30 c 

281, Jos. Low 


iillSil 25 

N.n-W™,S,udi«.. By Edw. Bai,« 

.'*ni 30' 


N..!9-*l k ™.ID. s m S awRe C .. i|r KgJgJ 

* Rhymes from A 10 Z. 

.■S'LST-In ore 

Son8! ,nd G " M ‘- SSrSi 

A Bonus with 

$2 and $3 Purchases 

Each $2.00 purchase made during September, 
1918, of any of offers Nos. I to 64 (on these 
pages), will entitle the customer to a choice of 
one of the following valuable musical publications 
without additional charge. 

Student’s Book 


p p* | This book bridges the gap between first in. 


$2.00 [ a, 

A $3.00 

No. 37—Standard Advanced Album p 0 «j,,h 

An advanced collection of piano pieces, Until Sept.30,1 
chiefly in grades four to six, with a few 
‘ill more advanced than these. The numbers 
this album are most suitable for advanced 
study pieces and for recital or concert playing, 
composers represented are all writers of 

_ = nized merit, and these particular numbers 

represent some of their best efforts. 


30 s 

No. 38—Twelve Pieces. By G. F. Handel &*° e d “£Xw ,b 

This collection of excellent educational Until Sspi.30,1918 
material for third and fourth-grade pupils 

i very valuable and illuminating preface 
.... . Jn Bulow. There is also a biographical 
«ketch of Handel l>y Theo. Presser that is an 
added feature to the educational val 

20 s 

No. 39—Standard Parlor Album 

Only third and fourth _ grade pie. 

ntroductory Cash 
Price, Postpaid 
3 that Until Sepl.30,1918 


N..41-Jus,W«T.a Geo.L. Spaulding 

final introductory offers continued on 

Page 616 SEPTEMBER 1918 



Final Introductory Offers on Neu) Publications 

No. 47—Spr 


ng. By Joseph Haydn J^ l p^ y a S w 

dii’s Oratorio, The UntilSepUO*191 

it the length of 
f Haydn’s most 
tabled In this 
it is of so beau- 
of performance 

25 s 

No. 48—The Message Eternal. By J. c «h 

Truman Wolcott 

No. 54 — DeBeriot’s Method for the 

Violin. Book 1 Until Sept. 30,1918 

An excellent new edition of an old standard 
work, which has been reprinted by 1 
lishers in dll parts of the world. R 
for the melodiousness of its exercis 
goes far toward alleviating some of 1 

35 ! 

No. 55a—Easy Melodic Studies for the |T r ; r c 0 / u ^ipaid a>h 
Violin, Book 1. F. Wohlfahrt, Op. 74. Until’,i9i8 
No. 55b—Easy Melodic Studies for the 
Violin, Book 2. F. Wohlfahrt, Op. 74. 

Book 1 is entirely in the First Position; Book 
2, in the Third Position. These studies are all 
tuneful and very agreeable to play. They are 
in progressive order, leading the student along 
easily and naturally through the foundation 
work of violin playing. This new edition has . .. 
fully revised and prepared by Mr. Frederick Hahn. 

20 ( 

No. 56—Six Petits Airs Varies for Violin 

Ch. Dancla, Op. 89. umu’sepi 30,1918 

Six bright, graceful and brilliant little pieces 
for young violinists. Number five is 
pecial favorite, containing some eas 
playing in the form of left-hand plzzli 
—mpanying bowed notes. The piano 
iniments of each are quite easy. Thu, pamcumi ruiu..., 
well edited and altogether is one of the best obtainable. 

25 s 

s needed'for 

and Is thoroughly 



No. 57—Peerless Diagram Method for - c .^ ,1 

the Mandolin Unii'&pi.M.iMi 

very beginning 
etc., and continuing Dy 
interesting series of exe 
course of study may l 
material in this method. 

the element 

pT?es!° 7e 

covered by the clei 



No. 58—Spelling Lessons in Time and j”? 0 ** 1 " 

No. 60—A Revelation to the Vocal World. c* 

Edmund J. Myer bmii s^tJjo.fsij 

Years of experience, not only In singing and In _ 
teaching, but in examining first sources, writ- *■ 
ing books upon the subject, listening to great / U_ 
singers and talking with them, have placed f 71 
E J Mver, the author of this book, in a p,.si md%J 

tion all his own. In this bo '- ---- 

he feels to be the path of si 

o great 

I'll- • •! 

No. 61—Child’s Own Book of Great c .*' 1 ' 

Musicians. By Thos. Tapper * 

iphies by Thos. T«[ 

tto. 61F. Mcnueissonn. _ 

No. 61G. Mozart. 1 AC 

No. 61H. Schubert. Ill 

No. 61 J. 





No. 61K. 

10 £ 

i of t 

ms arc included, a 
iry to be written, 
tually makes its c 


ing the il 
led to be 


i book. Thoueands m 


No. 62—American Organist 

of Interin 
lily ail sty 

Introductory Cub 
Prko. Poitpiid 
r UahlSou.M.UU 

175 s 

No. 63 - - Eight Short Prelude* and S“ k 

Fugues. J. S. Bach 

A careful and painstaking editing liy the well- m+C 
known organist. Mr. K. A. Kraft, makes thl. Cl f" 
dill,,n ,,f Ibis importI . .In. :,||..m.l work f..r / 1% ~ 
the organ one „f the best obinlmiblc. No organ / I .l 
course is complete without these Preludes an,I UU 

the polyphonic, , 

No. 64—The Organ, (New Edition). Sir a 

John Stainer SS&Rfi 

Without doing violence to I lie orlglnn 

Notation. Mathilde Bilbro 

s a preliminary writing book 
.I notation through ' 

bat teaches 
me spelling of 

-.,. leger lines above 

treble staff, then leger lines below. The 
e is then covered in the bass. There are 

.u -- -- tbe ljnes of thp 

20 c 

i cover the changes i 
•gan building, anil esp 
iring the intervening y 

50 c 

staflf in both clefs. Various time signatures 
are covered. The work goes even as fai 
chord writing and into the various styles. 

s preliminar 

Send orders for above offers only to 
Theo. Presser Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Remember in making up yo 
order that there is a bonus offered 
on $2.00 and $3.00 purchases. (See 
page 615). 


ention THE ETUDE 

addressing our advertisers. 

I etude 

SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 617 

Schools and Colleges 



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a when addressing our advertisers. 

Page 618 SEPTEMBER 1918 

™ etude 


^Schools and 



The University School of Music offers courses in Piano, Voice,Violin, Organ, Theory and Public School Music. 
Students may attend the Music School and also take the regular work at the University. 

Tuition, X36.QO per quarter of twelve weeks. Board with Furnished Room. £39 to.*51 per quarter. 
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Send for catalog 


806 Nicollet Ave., Minneapolis 

Milwaukee-Downer College 

Milwaukee, Wi«. 

Department of Music 

Offers Piano, Organ, Violin, Voice Training, 
Theory of Music and a Teachers - Course in 
Public School Music. The degree Bachelor of 
;e in Arts is offered for music specialists. 


Musical Kindergarten—Primary 

Intelligent Musicianship 
Artistic Interpretation 
Three Hundred Lessons—Every Phase of Music 
Study and Art of Piano Playing during First Three 
Years of the Child-Selected from Practical Work 
of Author—Child Specialist’—Composer of “Melody 
T.and”, “Nine Melody Stories”, “Musical Picture 

_\ Musical Poems”, etc. 

Complete Course—Twenty Subjects—Analysed—Illus¬ 
trated in Detail. Each Subject Obtained 

Not a Correspondence Course—Adaptable to Any 
lystem of Instruction. 

Also Personal Normal Instruction — Graded 
chool of Music, Los Angeles Descriptive Utera- 
ire: 132 South Hidalgo Ave.,. Alhambra, Calif. 

Minneapolis School of Music, 

0 Artist Teachers 


School Orofessional 

—<>' lie 

Individu«l a. 

icture Playing 

. Practical 
Send for folder. 





Director Decatur Musical College, Decatur, III. 
Member Faculty Sherwood Music School, Chicago 
Pupil of Leschetizky and Sherwood. 

Specialists in all Phases of Musical 
Education Advertise on these Pages. 

Mastering the Scales and Arpeggios 

Price, $1.25 By James Francis Cooke 

Covers the entire subject from beginning to end 

Gabrilowitsch: “Unusually solid aqd valuable book. Sure to arouse 
keen interest.” Alberto Jonas i “Masterful from a pedagogical stand¬ 
point. I recommend it to every earnest musician.” Katharine Goodson: 
“Most excellent. Extremely thorough and comprehensive.” M. Rosen¬ 
thal: “Very valuable and useful.” Emil Liebling: “Most practical 
presentation imaginable of an all important subject.. 

ir increasing sale ai 

Send for a caps "On Safe" 






individual it 

Because of its aistintruUho 

cSmB^CONSERVATORY* affords opportunities not obtainable elsewhere lor s complete 

mus'cal^ucation.^s Training Course for Teachers, Public School Music 

Supervision. Four Pupils’ Recitals a week. Two Complete Pupils Symphony 
Orchestras. Reciprocal relations with University of Pennsylvania. 


(Theoretical and Applied Branchs. Tau,hl Priralel, and in Cl..... 


Organized, developed, and for 22 years conducted under the personal d.rect.on of Henry Sebs- 
dieck. the world s greatest violin teacher. 

^Under William Geiger 

•• Schredieck's colleague, the school will)* 


rmitory pupils have advantages not afforded in any other school of rr 
pervised Practice, Daily Classes in Technic. Musical Scene#. Theory < 
aining. Physical Culture, Vocal and Instrumental Ensemble end Public 
The onbl Conxnatoru In the Slate ulllh Dormitories for Wo men. 
A School of Inspiration, Enthusiasm, Loyalty and Sued 
IlluMtaitd Year Book F ,re 

'JT'HE ETUDB Is hot a musical newspaper but a monthly presentation 
-* . of valuable information and musical compositions that greatly 
aid the Teacher and Student and vitally interest the Music Lover. 

Lake Forest 
University School of Music 

The heat in musical education Inn cultured home en- 

Hlstory of Music and Appreciation. Rohnot orchestra. 

-i! - ; ■■■ ’•' - 

Colkfft , . 

MARTA MILI.NOWSKL, B.A.. Dir. Box 10*. Lake Forest, III. 



Fall Term - September 
4259 Fifth Ave. PITTSBURGH 

Millikin Conservatory 

nf Mllttin ee DECATUR 


Do“n i dd n M. e Swnri fhaut^Axlcht.Di^r 
Building—One of the finest in existence for Con- 

Faculty-Foreign trained teacher, in all depart mentl 
Course* Leading to Certificate and Diploma in 
Singing, Piano, Violin, 'Cello and • Pipe-Organ 

ReS^lo™ pSfble at any r ,im^ USiC CW- 

| Illustrated Catalog sent on request 

| Sixteenth year begin# September 17, 1918 


Michigan State Normal College 
Conservatory of Music 

Ypsilanti, Michigan 

Courses in singing, piano, organ, violin 
and theory. 

Courses for training supervison 
teachers of public school monk. 

Graduation leads to a life certificate 
valid in most states of the union. 

Total living eipenses need not ei«« 
five dollars per week. Tuitionandte 
exceptionally low. Write for cats** 


Plats* mention THE ETUDE 



"A Gathering-Place for Advanced Stwdcot,” 

Mber? l | BE ? T A ' STan LEY. Director 
ThcodorTH." 000 - Hc * d of P‘»"°Dep-t 
rhcoc.ore Harr Head of Vocal Dep't 

Or?h«tra r>e p “ d * Vio,i " *" d 

E. V. Moore, Head of Organ and Theory 

FIOr *Dept B ' P ° tter ’ Head °» Method. 

Byrl Fox Bacher. Dean o, Women. 

Charles A. Slak, < Scs.*!l 000 Maynard St. 
^oi-leoebeo, nsseptemrfp WHh 


Schools and Colleges. 



SEPTEMBER 1918 Page 619 




Public School Music and Teachers’ Training Course 

.alts’ Orchestra’ Operatic and Dramatic Productions. Numerous Recitals. Plays and Lectures Inter 
£L oXa and Observation of Teaching among Free Advantages. Theoretical bran?hS'rrSitn 
aisofoM ° r mote major sublecta 

Faculty of Artists and Teachers of International Fame 


Charles Norman Granville TheN ' tHLw** and 

Mr Granville Is one of the foremo* artiata In ’America, ms phenomenal suoocess as a teacher Is 
hr the isreo u ' hta students holding promlnont positions in opera, ooncert, churches 


Eastern Conservatory of Music 

(ADepartment of Eastern ColUfa) 


St fro * 54 **•*••* 

DR. H. U. ROOP, Pre... Man..*a.,Va.,Box R 

Atlanta Conservatory of Music 



Advantage* Equal to Those Found Anywhere 

FiU Session Begin. September 2d, 1918. 

Cst.leg. GEO. r. LINDNER, Director 

Peachtree and Broad Streets, Atlauta, Georgia 1 


Private and Class Teaching 

Meskal Tfdwtw* Interpretation 


Hahn Music School 

Chas. D. Hahn, Director ^ 

The School "for your Daughter | 

Our catalogue telle why f 

3919-e Juniue Street, Delia., Tex. § 



’ £j/\DvfL' I BALTIMORE, MD. 


One of the oldest and most noted Music Schools in America. 



M axim is >11 branches. Extension course 
h Mci. Bk. Degree by msil. Preparation by 

SRMS.mrnn Srhoal-Jmut and July 

Adfre. Dean of Music. College of Marshall 
Marshall, Texas 

The Courtright System of Music A Kindergarten 

Mr%. Lillian Caurtrlghl Card, 110 Edna Ave ,Rr!dgeport,C«n«. 

Advertising is one of the indispen¬ 
sable elements of modern business 



Elocution— MUSIC— Languages 

Special Coarsen In 

Public School Music and Progressive 
Series of Piano Lessons 

LoeaUon and eurrooodloge Ideal for summer ntudy 
For Catalog and Circular, Addr... 

jj gs BERTHA BAUR, Directress, Highland Avenue and Oak St„ Cincinnati. 0, 





, VK ,„ Desk E. WARREN, OHIO 

> LYNN B. DANA, President ...— 



Mistakes and Disputed Points in Music and Music Teaching 



Schools and Colleges 



“Strongest Faculty in the Middle West” 

A School which offers every advantage 
incidental to a broad musical education. 

Fifty artist teachers. Highest standards. 
Artistic environment. 

For Catalog Address 




Pianist, Organist and Musical Lecturer 

vel. Varied and Beautifully lllu.t 
the American Platfor 

.ny of the^largest^Uni 

ted Lecture-recitals upon 

rsities, Colleges, Lyceujns 
MacDowelV’ Mr.^Corey's 
schools and musical clubs. 

38 WOODWARD TERRACE, Detroit, Mich. 

Detroit Conservatory of 


Francis L. York, M. A., President 
Elisabeth Johnson, Vice President 

45th YEAR 

Finest Conservatory In the West 

Offers to earnest students courses of study based upon the best modern and 
educational principles. Renowned faculty of 70. Students’ orchestra, 
concerts and recitals. Diplomas and degrees conferred. Teachers 
certificates. Desirable Boarding Accommodations. 

Fall Term Opens September 9, 1918 



Wilhelmina Sutz, Lavern Brown. Ethel 
Littel and 33 additional Instructors. 

Singing —Archibald C. Jackson, Mrs. Chas. 
H. Clements, Miss Elisabeth H. Bennett, 
Mrs. Carrie F. Travers, Carl Mann, Miss 
Lucile Lincoln, Mrs. Helen Howard 

Violin— Earl W. Morse, Mr. Pasquale Briglia, 
Saul Abramowitz, Miss Grace Ashdown. 
Organ—Francis L. York, M. A., Alle D. 

Theory, Harmony, Composition— Alle^D. 

this department.’ Francis L. York, M. A. 
Orchestral Instruments — Earl Van Am- 

Mandolin and Gu/for—Alexander G. Poll, 

Mrs. Ida. Vogt Cottier. 

Flute— Simon Culp 

Normal Training for Piano Teachers— 
Francis L York. 

Public School Music and Drawing —Miss 
Hermit e Lorch, Paul Honore. 
Violoncello—Mr. Fred Dayne. 

School of Expression —Miss Lilly Adelg 

Harp— Ruth Clyhlck, 

Examinations Free. For Catalog and Other Information Address 

JAMES H. BELL, Sec., Box 7, IQ-13 Woodward Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Be a Teacher of Music and 
Drawing in the Public Schools 


Every year music and drawing are bocom- 

* factors m education. Usually the 

r teachers of music and drawing 

I, Detroit, Mich. 

Thomas Normal Training School 


PAGE 594 


A new song hit. Be sure and try it over. Copies can 
now be had in sheet form of any Music Dealer. 
Published in Two Keys THEO. PRESSER CO., Phila., Pa. 

“ pj eue mention THE ETUDE when addressing o 


tee etude 

Schools and. Colleges 



Chicago’s Foremost II AMERICAN 


Violoncello, Orchestral 
Music, Harmony, Composi¬ 
tion, Physical Culture, Dal- 
and dancing. 


a:«> of 

*11 Building, 
catalog and 


Bush Conservatory 



An Institution of National Prominence 


Fall Term Opens September 16th 

Dormitory^Rcservations now being received. ^For illustrated catalog giving full de¬ 
address Registrar, 834 North Dearborn Ave., Chicago, Ill. 


V V 200 Partial Scholarships “Sd'fhoTud: 

Under State Charter 

by the Conservatory Board to en- 





Eighteenth season opens September 9,1918, Registration week begins September 2. 
A school lor the serious study of music. Faculty of seventy-five, including the fol¬ 
lowing eminent Artists and Teachers: 






Every Branch of Music: PIANO, THEORY, VOICE, VIOLIN 
Public School Music Methods Teachers’ Normal Traininc 

Snprial flaccps_Advanced Interpretation for Professional Musicians; Special Courses for the 

special uasses p ost Graduate Teacher, Kindergarten. Ear Training, Harmony, Dalcroze 
Eurythmics, Sight Reading, Orchestral and Chora! Conducting. 

Frne A rivanfnrrpc_History of Music, Faculty Concerts, Pupils'Recitals, Beginners'Sight Read- 

Tree Advantages ing Claas chorus C | asa Orchestra, Demonstration 5 Childrens' Class 
Work, Lectures. Graduates assisted to positions through the school employment bureau. 

Students’ Orchestra (Free)—^ a” 

in Piano, Voice and Violin to appear at rehearsals and concerts. 

Students’ Chorus (Free) Open to students of all departments. 

Certificates, Diplomas and Degrees by authority of the STATE OF ILLINOIS. 

Public School Music 


’owing demand for Men and^Women teachers of Public School Musi 
good salaries under ideal working conditions. 

umbia School of Mu__ „„ u « 

lositions through the School employment uge 
irse requires two years for graduation but in r 
diing experience, music study. College or Ui 
i and secure their Diplomas in one year. 

le places and assists its 

extended work in Harmony, Sight Reading and Ear-Tr 
COLUMBIA SCHOOL OF MUSIC, 460 Ohio Bldg., 509 South Wabash 

ied Psychology ^Practice Teaching, Orchestra 


Please mention THE ETUDE 





ELIAS DAY. Director 
‘D efinite Preparation for a Definite Work’’ 
k superior faculty, teaching every branch 0 | 

HiimV nnH DniTniltip Art. ninlnmeo 

Fall Term open. September 9, 1918. 

Write for detailed Information and free calaira. 
Address Frank A. Morgan. Manager. 

Dept. E 

600-610 LYON & HEALY BLDG., Chicago 

Louise Burton 


Available for Concert,. Ora- 
sod Ontume Reciub. 

treSsas. 1 ** 


Winter Term Opens September Ninth, 1918 

Opportunity for performance 


Create Keyboard ai 
mS%n^£s H3 0 0 to> 220.00* 


218 8. Wabash Are., Chlesgo. m. 

109 West 45th Street, Hew York City 

Schools and 
Teachers adver¬ 
tising on these pages 
have established rep¬ 
utations on merit. 


A School of Musical Arts 

AB branches of mi Eminent faculty. Teacher.' certificate, and diploma, inued by authority of die Sale dlfc- 

Master School of Piano and Violin playing under the direction of Walter Knupfer and Harry Wtubich. 
A Limited Number of Scholarships to Pupils of Exeevtional Talent 

Fall Term Starts September 9th 





Preparatory _ Complete The New Gradus 

School of Technic School of Technic ad Parnassum 

Price, si.50 In Eight B- , 

for use in daily A compendium of modem tech- . Price, SI. 00 each 

? all technical me, exhaustive in all details in In this unique work each g 

>y be taken up eluding all forms of finger e’aer- *P»rtjnentol tt^Tie iscaMito- 

ade. and con- c«.,«.le^ chord, and a^eggioe. ’tSH > 

”X p uMz S 

order. Each rlaatification i* 3 


being classified togetler sod 
ed in logical and progressive 
Each classification » 

ps and are lished as a separate Pa’I The* 
rhythms. part, are as follow,: No. 1. tf' 
and drrec- hand Technic. No ’. 

Chicago Musical College 

Special Prizes for Next Season beginning September 16 th 

The Mason & Hamlin Company, of Boston, offers to the successful competitor 
in the Graduation or Post-Graduation Classes of the Piano Department a 


The Cable Piano Company, of Chicago, offers to the successful competitor in the 
Senior Diploma Class of the Piano Department a 


Carl D. Kinsey offers to the successful competitor in the Graduation or Post- 
Graduation Classes of the Vocal Department a 



Felix Borowski offers to the successful competitor in the Graduation or Post-Graduation Classes of 
Department a 



the Violin 

T HE FINAL contests are to be held in Orchestra Hall (Chicago) in May, 1919, and the 
judges will be musicians of international distinction not connected with The Chicago 
Musical College. The winner of the Mason & Hamlin and Conover Grand Pianos will 
play at the Commencement Exercises in June, 1919. Contestants must enroll by October 1, 
1918 and continue study throughout the season. 

Courses and private lessons in Piano, yoice, Violin, 
Organ, Theory, Public School Music, Movies, Dancing, 
School of Opera, Orchestral Instruments, Expression, 
Acting. Normal training for Teachers in all Branches. 
Teachers’ Certificates, Diplomas, Degrees, Medals, 
Public Recitals. Unrivaled Free Advantages, Supplies 

Teachers and Artists to Colleges and Schools. Lyceum 
and Chautauqua engagements guaranteed when stu¬ 
dents are ready. Students enrolled at any time. Dormi¬ 
tory Accommodations. Tuition reasonable and musical 
advantages unequaled elsewhere. Examination free. 
Complete catalog on request. 

60 Free and 140 Partial Scholarships 

to be awarded to talented students with limited means during September 

Elman, Zimbalist, Seidel, etc., has been engaged 

illustrious Violin instructor, teacher of Heifetz, 
for a term of five weeks beginning September 



President Emeritus 



CARL D. KINSEY, Vice-President and Manager 

620 S. Michigan Ave., CHICAGO, ILL. 

(College Bldg., next to Blackstone Hotel) 



Greatest Song the 
War has Produced 

Now being used by the following Grand Opera Singers 





In three keys: High, Bb; High, Ab; Medium or Low, F. - .60 

With Military Band or Orchestral Accompaniment 



For Male Voices (Fischer Edition, No. 4537) - .12 

For Women’s Voices (No. 4573) .12 

For Mixed Voices (No. 4574).12 

For Soprano, Alto and Baritone (No. 4577) - - .12 


FAY FOSTER’S new song “The Americans Come!” ‘tugs 
at the heart strings’ and is the one war song that has the 
punch from beginning to end. Every American singer must 
know it and ought to use it on every possible occasion. 

Order from your regular dealer or from the publishers 



A complete list of Fay Foster*s compositions will be mailed upon request 

The School Credit 
Piano Course 

A Loose-Leaf Course for the Systematic 
Training of Ears, Fingers and Mind in 
Piano Playing and Musicianship : : 



Wellesley College. Institute of Musical Art. New York 


Boston University. Director of Music, Pittsburgh. 

WILLIAM ARMS FISHER, Managing Editor. 

The School Credit Piano Course was made by practical Am¬ 
erican teachers, closely in touch with the problems of the school, 
the teacher and the pupil. 


To provide private teachers and school authorities with 
a comprehensive and systematic course of study with large 
disciplinary value, equal to that of other school studies, 
and therefore worthy of credit. 

Descriptive booklet with miniature pages sent Free on request 

Oliver Ditson Company 

Department 10, Boston 

Order of Your Local Dealer 

The Greatest Educational Work of the Age! 

Graded Course 



=for the= 


compiled by= 



Price, $1.00 Each Grade 


A Complete, Progressive Series of the 
Indispensable Studies from the Very 
Beginning to the Highest Grade 

Constantly Revised, Enlarged and Re-edited 

by other educators of equal note. It is always new — always the best 
selected material from the world’s most useful and interesting studies. 

Fits in With Any System or Method 

The Standard Graded Course may be used by any teacher without 
previous special training. Teachers desiring to use special systems for various 
purposes will find they can readily apply them in conjunction with this course. 

Make No Mistake 

Great success brings imitators. The 
Standard Graded Course is the only 
course which has constantly kept step 
with the never ending progress of the art. 
It is a method for real “ Every Day ” 
pupils, made by real music teaching ex¬ 
perts with a sympathetic understanding 
of the teacher’s every day needs. 

Free Inspection at 
Home of the Standard 
Graded Course 

Any teacher may inspect any or all of the 
ten volumes of the Standard Graded 
Course in the home studio through the 
" On Sale” mail order system. Teachers 
pay only for what they use. 

I WO r C ^ Pl i rT J e ^ tary B ?,° ks t0 A11 Writing Now. All inquiring about the 
Standard Graded Course will receive free, if asked for. the booklet ” Selected Graded 
List giving the particulars of 800 classic, semi-classic and popular pieces, books and 
exercises, a teacher s desk book to answer the vital question “ What Shall I Teach in Each 
Grade? The 96-page Year Book for Teachers” may also be had for the asking.